Unit of local government in the UK from the 8th century until 1974, when it continued as an honorary status granted by royal charter to a district council, entitling its leader to the title of mayor.
1. An English town that forms the constituency of a member of Parliament.
2. One of the administrative divisions of a large city.
luminous ring around the moon
ancient Scottish stone tower.
ETYM Old Eng. Related to Burg.
(government) Former unit of Scottish local government, referring to a town enjoying a degree of self-government, abolished 1975; the terms burgh and royal burgh once gave mercantile privilege but are now only an honorary distinction.
(archaic) (burh or borough) Archaic form of borough.
A borough in Scotland.
ETYM French, from commun. Related to Common.
1. A body of people or families living together and sharing everything.
2. The smallest administrative district of several European countries (Belgium and France and Italy and Switzerland).
Group of people or families living together, sharing resources and responsibilities.
Communes developed from early 17th-century religious communities such as the Rosicrucians and Muggletonians, to more radical groups such as the Diggers and the Quakers. Many groups moved to America to found communes, such as the Philadelphia Society (1680s) and the Shakers, which by 1800 had ten groups in North America. The Industrial Revolution saw a new wave of utopian communities associated with the ideas of Robert Owen and Charles Fourier. Communes had a revival during the 1960s, when many small groups were founded. In 1970 it was estimated there were 2,000 communes in the US, and 100 in England.
The term also refers to a communal division or settlement in a communist country. In China, a policy of Mao Zedong involved the grouping of villages within districts (averaging 30,000 people); thus were cooperatives amalgamated into larger units, the communes. 1958 (the Great Leap Forward) saw the establishment of people's communes (workers' combines) with shared living quarters and shared meals. Communes organized workers' brigades and were responsible for their own nurseries, schools, clinics, and other facilities.
The term can also refer to the 11th-century to 12th-century association of burghers in N and central Italy. The communes of many cities asserted their independence from the overlordship of either the Holy Roman emperor or the pope, only to fall under the domination of oligarchies or despots during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Sinonimi: community of interests
ETYM Latin communitas: cf. Old Fren. communité. Related to Commonalty, and see Common.
1. A group of nations having common interests.
2. A group of people having ethnic or cultural or religious characteristics in common.
3. A group of people living in a particular local area.
4. Agreement as to goals; SYN. community of interests.
5. Common ownership.
6. In the social sciences, the sense of identity, purpose, and companionship that comes from belonging to a particular place, organization, or social group. The concept dominated sociological thinking in the first half of the 20th century, and inspired the academic discipline of community studies.
ETYM Cf. French municipalité.
1. An urban district having corporate status and powers of self-government.
2. People living in a town or city having local self-government.
ETYM Old Eng. parishe, paresche, parosche, Old Fren. paroisse, parosse, paroiche, French paroisse, Latin parochia, corrupted from paroecia, Greek, dwelling beside or near; para beside + oikos a house, dwelling. Related to Vicinity, Parochial.
1. A local church community.
2. The local subdivision of a diocese committed to one pastor.
3. A civil division of the state of Louisiana corresponding to a county in other states.
A building that houses administrative offices of a town government.
ETYM French, from Latin villaticus belonging to a country house or villa. Related to Villa, Villatic.
1. A community of people smaller than a town; SYN. small town, settlement.
2. A settlement smaller than a town; SYN. hamlet.