1. Materijalno organizacioni sistem pojedinca čiji cilj je podmirenje njegovih ekonomskih potreba i potreba članova njegove porodice;
2. Naučna disciplina koja se bavi problemima mikroekonomije (grč.)
3. Ekonomija koja se bavi pojedinačnim jedinkama, kao što su domaćinstva, firme i dr.
Economies dealing with individual units, as households, firms, etc.
The division of economics concerned with the study of individual decision-making units within an economy: a consumer, firm, or industry. Unlike macroeconomics, it looks at how individual markets work and how individual producers and consumers make their choices and with what consequences. This is done by analyzing how relevant prices of goods are determined and the quantities that will be bought and sold.
For simplicity, microeconomics begins by analyzing a market in which there is perfect competition, a theoretical state that exists only when no individual producer or consumer can influence the market price. In the real world, there is always imperfect competition for various reasons (monopoly practices, barriers to trade, and so on), and microeconomics examines what effect these have on wages and prices.
Underlying these and other concerns of microeconomics is the concept of optimality, first advanced by Vilfredo Pareto in the 19th century. Pareto’s perception of the most efficient state of an economy, when there is no scope to reallocate resources without making someone worse off, has been of great influence.