Konstantinopolj, grad na evropskoj obali Bosfora i Mramornog mora, osnovao je 330. godine car Konstantin 1. (274-337), po kojem je i dobio ime. Preko hiljadu godina (od 395. do 1453. godine) Carigrad je bio prestonica Vizantijskog carstva i oko dve hiljada godina centar prve, po nadležnosti, Patrijaršije pravoslavnog istoka. Prvu hrišćansku zajednicu u ovom gradu, koji se ranije zvao Vizant, osnovao je po predanju, apostol Andrija, a ona svog stalnog episkopa ima već od 2. veka. Od 2. vaseljenskog sabora, održanog u osom gradu 381. godine, Carigradska crkva postaje druga po redu u čitavom hrišćanstvu, odmah posle Rimske. Od 1204. do 1261. godine Carigrad su okupirali krstaši i tada je znatno oštećen i opljačkan. Turci su ga zauzeli 1453. godine i do 1922. bio je prestonica Otomanske imperije. Oni su mu dali naziv Istanbul, odnosno Stambol. Mnogi njegovi hramovi su porušeni i pretvoreni u džamije i muzeje.
Former name (330–1453) of Istanbul, Turkey. It was named after the Roman emperor Constantine the Great when he enlarged the Greek city of Byzantium 328 and declared it the capital of the Byzantine Empire 330. Its elaborate fortifications enabled it to resist a succession of sieges, but it was captured by crusaders 1204, and was the seat of a Latin (Western European) kingdom until recaptured by the Greeks 1261. An attack by the Turks 1422 proved unsuccessful, but it was taken by another Turkish army 29 May 1453, after nearly a year's siege, and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
Ancient capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires.
Ancient name of the city of Istanbul.
The largest city and former capital of Turkey; built on the site of ancient Byzantium; seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church; Also called: Stambul, Stamboul, Constantinople.
City and chief seaport of Turkey; urban area 6,407,200; city 6,293,400. It produces textiles, tobacco, cement, glass, and leather. Founded as Byzantium about 660 BC, it was renamed Constantinople AD 330 and was the capital of the Byzantine Empire until captured by the Turks 1453. As Istamboul it was capital of the Ottoman Empire until 1922.
features the harbor of the Golden Horn; Hagia Sophia (Emperor Justinian’s church of the Holy Wisdom, 537, now a mosque); Sultan Ahmet Mosque, known as the Blue Mosque, from its tiles; Topkapi Palace of the Sultans, with a harem of 400 rooms (now a museum). The Selimye Barracks in the suburb of Usküdar (Scutari) was used as a hospital in the Crimean War; the rooms used by Florence Nightingale, with her personal possessions, are preserved as a museum.