Bertrand, Earl R., 1872, 1970, engl. Mathematiker u. Philosoph; Hauptvertreter der math. Logik; Neurealist mit phänomenalist.-positivist. Zügen; als Pazifist u. Gegner der Atombewaffnung auch polit. hervorgetreten; Nobelpreis für Lit. 1950.
(Arthur William) 3rd Earl Russell (1872-1970) British philosopher and mathematician who contributed to the development of modern mathematical logic and wrote about social issues. His works include Principia Mathematica 1910–13 (with A N Whitehead), in which he attempted to show that mathematics could be reduced to a branch of logic; The Problems of Philosophy 1912; and A History of Western Philosophy 1946. He was an outspoken liberal pacifist. Nobel Prize for Literature 1950.
Russell was born in Monmouthshire, the grandson of Prime Minister John Russell. He studied mathematics and philosophy at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became a lecturer 1910. His pacifist attitude in World War I lost him the lectureship, and he was imprisoned for six months for an article he wrote in a pacifist journal. His Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy 1919 was written in prison. He and his wife ran a progressive school 1927–32. After visits to the USSR and China, he went to the US 1938 and taught at many universities. In 1940, a US court disqualified him from teaching at City College of New York because of his liberal moral views. He later returned to England and resumed his fellowship at Trinity College.
Russell was a life-long pacifist except during World War II. From 1949 he advocated nuclear disarmament and until 1963 was on the Committee of 100, an offshoot of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.
Among his other works are Principles of Mathematics 1903, Principles of Social Reconstruction 1917, Marriage and Morals 1929, An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth 1940, New Hopes for a Changing World 1951, and Autobiography 1967–69.
(1872-1970) British philosopher and mathematician.
George William, Pseudonym ?, 1867, 1935, angloirischer Dichter, Maler u. Publizist; Vertreter der »kelt. Renaissance« u. einer theosoph. Mystik.
(1867-1935) Irish poet and essayist. An ardent nationalist, he helped found the Irish national theater, and his poetry, published under the pseudonym “AE”, includes Gods of War 1915 and reflects his interest in mysticism and theosophy.
Henry Norris, 1877, 1957, US-amerik. Astrophysiker; bes. bekannt durch das Hertz-R.-Diagramm.
(1877-1957) US astronomer who was the first to put in graphic form what became known as the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram 1913.
Russell was born in Oyster Bay, New York, and studied at Princeton, where in 1905 he was made professor and director of the observatory. In 1921 he moved to the Mount Wilson Observatory, California.
Like Ejnar Hertzsprung, Russell concluded that stars could be grouped in two main classes, one much brighter than the other. He used Annie Cannon’s system of spectral classification, which also indicated surface temperature. Most of the stars were grouped together in what became known as the “main sequence”, but there was a group of very bright stars outside the main sequence. Russell put forward the theory that all stars progress at one time or another either up or down the main sequence, depending on whether they are contracting (and therefore becoming hotter) or expanding (thus cooling), but the progression he proposed was discredited within a decade.
Russell's lifelong study of binary stars resulted in a method for calculating the mass of each star from a study of its orbital behavior. He pioneered a system using both orbits and masses in order to compute distance from Earth.