Giuseppe, Genua 22.6.1805, +Pisa 10.3.1872, italien. Politiker. M. gründete 1831 den Bund 'Giovine Italia', schloß sich 1848 der Garibaldischen Legion an und gehörte zu den Triumvirn der 1849 gegründeten Röm. Republik; nach deren Scheitern im Exil.
(1805-1872) Italian nationalist. He was a member of the revolutionary society, the Carbonari, and founded in exile the nationalist movement Giovane Italia (Young Italy) 1831. Returning to Italy on the outbreak of the 1848 revolution, he headed a republican government established in Rome, but was forced into exile again on its overthrow 1849. He acted as a focus for the movement for Italian unity (see Risorgimento).
Mazzini, born in Genoa, studied law. For his subversive activity with the Carbonari he was imprisoned 1830, then went to France, founding in Marseille the Young Italy movement, followed by an international revolutionary organization, Young Europe, 1834. For many years he lived in exile in France, Switzerland, and the UK, and was condemned to death in his absence by the Sardinian government, but returned to Italy for the revolution of 1848. He conducted the defense of Rome against French forces and, when it failed, he refused to join in the capitulation and returned to London, where he continued to agitate until his death in Geneva, Switzerland.