Die krieger. Bewohner des antiken M. waren Hellenen. M. errang im 4. Jh. v. Chr. unter Philipp II. die Herrschaft über die Griechen u. unter Alexander d. Gr. die Herrschaft über ein kurzlebiges Weltreich. Seit dem 6. Jh. war M. vorwiegend slaw. besiedelt, wechselnd unter byzantin., bulgar. u. serb. Herrschaft, seit 1371/89 türkisch. Die Makedonische Frage wurde seit Ende des 19. Jh. ein ständiges Thema der internat. Politik; Bulgaren, Griechen u. Serben (neben der Türkei) stritten sich um den Besitz, bes. als M. nach den Balkankriegen 1912/13 den Türken entrissen u. zwischen Griechenland, Bulgarien u. Serbien aufgeteilt worden war. 1918 behielt Jugoslawien die an Serbien gefallenen Teile.
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(modern region) (Greek Makedhonia) Mountainous region of N Greece, part of the ancient country of Macedonia which was divided between Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece after the Balkan Wars of 1912–13. Greek Macedonia is bounded W and N by Albania and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; area 34,177 sq km/13,200 sq mi; Thee are two regions, Macedonia Central, and Macedonia East and Thrace. The chief city is Thessaloniki. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has refused to give up claims to the present Greek province of Macedonia, and has placed the star of Macedonia, symbol of the ancient Greek Kings of Macedonia, on its flag. Fertile valleys produce grain, olives, grapes, tobacco, and livestock. Mount Olympus rises to 2,918 m/9,570 ft on the border with Thessaly.(country) Landlocked country in SE Europe, bounded N by Serbia, W by Albania, S by Greece, and E by Bulgaria.
The 1991 constitution provides for a 120- to 140-member, single-chamber assembly (the Sobranje), elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term. The president is head of state and is elected by the assembly for a similar term. He, in turn, appoints the prime minister. Other ministers are elected by the assembly. The prime minister and other ministers may not concurrently be members of the assembly.
The ancient region of Macedonia (of which the present-day republic comprises only a part) was originally settled by the Slavs in the 6th century. It suffered a series of conquests: by Bulgars in the 7th century, by Byzantium 1014, and by Serbia in the 14th century. It became part of the Ottoman Empire 1355 and was divided between Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece after the Balkan Wars 1912–13. After World War I Serbian Macedonia (equivalent to the present-day republic) became part of the federal state of Yugoslavia and demands for greater autonomy were made. During World War II it was occupied by Bulgaria 1941–44 and in the postwar period, as part of Yugoslavia, tensions resurfaced between ethnic Macedonians and the Serb-dominated federal government.
After the death of Yugoslav president Tito 1980, it became increasingly apparent that the federal structure would not hold. Macedonia sought independence but the presence of a large Albanian minority, and objections by the Greek government to a state bearing the same name as a region in northern Greece, made the transition difficult. Nevertheless, independence was declared 1992 and the new state was admitted to the United Nations (UN) April 1993 under the provisional name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although Greece continued to block formal European Union (EU) recognition. Six EU member states agreed to formally recognize the new state Dec 1993, followed by the US Feb 1994. Greece responded by imposing a trade embargo on the republic. In April 1994 the European Commission began legal proceedings against Greece in the European Court of Justice over its refusal to lift the embargo.
In the meantime, the Macedonian Communist Party had agreed to relinquish its dominant role 1989 and a new multiparty constitution was adopted 1991. In the first presidential elections since independence Oct 1994, the incumbent president Kiro Gligorov was reelected; his coalition won 95 of the 120 assembly seats in concurrent parliamentary elections. Branko Crvenkovski, who had been prime minister since 1992, resumed his role.(ancient region) Ancient region of Greece, forming parts of modern Greece, Bulgaria, and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Macedonia gained control of Greece after Philip II's victory at Chaeronea 338 BC. His son, Alexander the Great, conquered a vast empire. Macedonia became a Roman province 146 BC.