Wellenopt. Technik der Bildspeicherung und Bildwiedergabe, das 1948/1951 von D. Gábor erfunden wurde; die H. ermöglicht (im Gegensatz zur Photographie) die Speicherung und Wiedergabe dreidimensionaler Strukturen von räumlichen Szenen. Die mittels kohärentem Licht und Laserlichtquelle gewonnenen Bilder bezeichnet man als Hologramme. Werden mehrere kohärente Lichtbündel verschiedener Wellenlängen benutzt, lassen sich auch farbige Bilder speichern und wiedergeben (Farbholographie).
The branch of optics that deals with the use of coherent light from a laser in order to make a hologram that can then be used to create a three-dimensional image.
Method of producing three-dimensional (3-D) images by means of laser light. Holography uses a photographic technique (involving the splitting of a laser beam into two beams) to produce a picture, or hologram, that contains 3-D information about the object photographed. Some holograms show meaningless patterns in ordinary light and produce a 3-D image only when laser light is projected through them, but reflection holograms produce images when ordinary light is reflected from them (as found on credit cards).
Although the possibility of holography was suggested as early as 1947, it could not be demonstrated until a pure coherent light source, the laser, became available 1963. The technique of holography is also applicable to sound, and bats may navigate by ultrasonic holography. Holographic techniques also have applications in storing dental records, detecting stresses and strains in construction and in retail goods, detecting forged paintings and documents, and producing three-dimensional body scans. The technique of detecting strains is of widespread application. It involves making two different holograms of an object on one plate, the object being stressed between exposures. If the object has distorted during stressing, the hologram will be greatly changed, and the distortion readily apparent.