The control of data from acquisition and input through processing, output, and storage. In microcomputers, hardware manages data by gathering it, moving it, and following instructions to process it. The operating system manages the hardware and ensures that the parts of the system work in harmony so that data is stored safely and accurately. Application programs manage data by receiving and processing input according to the user’s commands, and sending results to an output device or to disk storage. The user also is responsible for data management by acquiring data, labeling and organizing disks, backing up data, archiving files, and removing unneeded material from the hard disk.