Scale of temperature, previously called centigrade, in which the range from freezing to boiling of water is divided into 100 degrees, freezing point being 0 degrees and boiling point 100 degrees.
The degree centigrade (ş) was officially renamed Celsius in 1948 to avoid confusion with the angular measure known as the centigrade (one hundredth of a grade). The Celsius scale is named for the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who devised it in 1742 but in reverse (freezing point was 100ş; boiling point 0ş).
The Celsius thermometer or scale, so called from Anders Celsius, a Swedish astronomer, who invented it. It is the same as the centigrade thermometer or scale.
A temperature scale defined by 0[s]C at the ice point and 100[s]C at boiling point of water at sea level.
Anders, Uppsala 27.11.1701, +ebd. 25.4.1744, schwed. Physiker und Astronom; betrieb Forschungen zur Erdvermessung, über das Polarlicht, die Jupitermonde und den gregorian. Kalender. Bleibendes Werk ist die nach ihm benannte C.-Skala zur Wärmemessung, die auf dem Gefrier- und Siedepunkt des Wassers beruht. C. teilte die Spanne zw. beiden Punkten in 100 Temperaturgrade ein.
(1701-1744) Swedish astronomer, physicist, and mathematician who introduced the Celsius scale of temperature. His other scientifc works include a paper on accurately determining the shape and size of the Earth, some of the first attempts to gauge the magnitude of the stars in the constellation Aries, and a study of the falling water level of the Baltic Sea.
Celsius was born in Uppsala, where he succeeded his father as professor of astronomy in 1730. He traveled extensively in Europe, visiting astronomers and observatories in particular. In Uppsala he built Sweden's first observatory.
On his travels Celsius observed the aurora borealis; he published some of the first scientific documents on the phenomenon 1733. An expedition to Lapland confirmed the theory propounded by Isaac Newton that the Earth is flattened at the poles.
In 1742 Celsius presented a proposal to the Swedish Academy of Sciences that all scientific measurements of temperature should be made on a fixed scale based on two invariable (generally speaking) and naturally occurring points. His scale defined 0ş as the temperature at which water boils, and 100ş as that at which water freezes. This scale, in an inverted form devised eight years later by his pupil Martin Strömer, has since been used in almost all scientific work.