Fait de rendre (vendre) au secteur privé qqch. qui appartenait ŕ l'État. Privatisation des chemins de fer en G.B.
Policy or process of selling or transferring state-owned or public assets and services (notably nationalized industries) to private investors. Privatization of services involves the government contracting private firms to supply services previously supplied by public authorities.
Supporters of privatization argue that the public benefits from theoretically greater efficiency from firms already in the competitive market, and the release of resources for more appropriate use by government. Those against privatization believe that it transfers a country's assets from all the people to a controlling minority, that public utilities such as gas and water become private monopolies, and that a profit-making state-owned company raises revenue for the government.
The trend has grown worldwide, since inefficient state-run enterprises with little accountability required ever-larger subsidies. Governments in the US, the UK, France, Japan, and Italy have pursued the policy, as have a number of developing states that seek to stimulate economic activity. Poland and other East European states are moving away from the Communist system of state-run enterprises toward a free-market economy, in hopes of producing more and higher quality goods and services. See also deregulation, monetarism.