ETYM Latin depressio: cf. French dépression.
Emotional state characterized by sadness, unhappy thoughts, apathy, and dejection. Sadness is a normal response to major losses such as bereavement or unemployment. After childbirth, postnatal depression is common. However, clinical depression, which is prolonged or unduly severe, often requires treatment, such as antidepressant medication, cognitive therapy, or, in very rare cases, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), in which an electrical current is passed through the brain.
Periods of depression may alternate with periods of high optimism, over-enthusiasm, and confidence. This is the manic phase in a disorder known as manic depression or bipolar disorder. A manic depressive state is one in which a person switches repeatedly from one extreme to the other. Each mood can last for weeks or for months. Typically, the depressive state lasts longer than the manic phase.
Depression costs the US around $12.4 billion each year in treatment. Another $23.8 billion is paid for by employers, arising from absenteeism and lost productivity.
(meteorology) or cyclone or low. In meteorology, a region of low atmospheric pressure. In mid latitudes depression forms as warm, moist air from the tropics mixes with cold, dry polar air, producing warm and cold boundaries (fronts) and unstable weather—low cloud and drizzle, showers, or fierce storms. The warm air, being less dense, rises above the cold air to produce the area of low pressure on the ground. Air spirals in toward the center of the depression in a counterclockwise direction in the northern hemisphere, clockwise in the southern hemisphere, generating winds up to gale force. Depressions tend to travel eastward and can remain active for several days.
A deep depression is one in which the pressure at the center is very much lower than that round about; it produces very strong winds, as opposed to a shallow depression in which the winds are comparatively light. A severe depression in the tropics is called a hurricane, tropical cyclone, or typhoon, and is a great danger to shipping; a tornado is a very intense, rapidly swirling depression, with a diameter of only a few hundred feet or so.
1. A concavity in a surface produced by pressing; SYN. impression, imprint.
2. A long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment; SYN. slump, economic crisis.
3. A mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity.
4. Angular distance below the horizon (especially of a celestial object).
5. Pushing down.
6. Sad feelings of gloom and inadequacy.
1. A cavity or space in something.
2. A small valley between mountains; SYN. holler.