ETYM Latin textilis, from texere to weave: cf. French textile. Related to Text.
Of or relating to fabrics or fabric making.
That which is, or may be, woven; a fabric made by weaving.
Woven fabric; formerly a material woven from natural spun thread, now loosely extended to machine knits and spun-bonded fabrics (in which a web of fiber is created and then fuse-bonded by passing it through controlled heat).
These are made from natural fibers and include cotton, linen, silk, and wool (including angora, llama, and many others). For particular qualities, such as flame resistance or water and stain repellence, these may be combined with synthetic fibers or treated with various chemicals.
The first commercial synthetic thread was “artificial silk”, or rayon, with filaments made from modified cellulose (wood pulp) and known according to later methods of manufacture as viscose (using caustic soda and carbon disulfide) or acetate (using acetic acid); the first fully synthetic textile fiber was nylon 1937. These, with acrylics, such as Orlon, used in knitwear, polyesters, such as Terylene, and spandex or elastomeric fibers, for example Lycra, form the basis of most of today’s industry.
These are made from plastic and synthetic fibers; either felted for use as filters or stabilizing grids, or woven for strength. They form part of drainage systems, road foundations, and barriers to sea and river defenses against erosion.
The oldest known textile in the world, discovered in S E Turkey, is a fragment of woven linen which was carbon-dated 1993 as being 9,000 years old.
Tkanina, tkivo, tkanje, sukno, platno.