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South Korea [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

A republic in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula; established in 194Also called: Republic of Korea.
See Korea, South.
Country in E Asia, bounded N by North Korea, E by the Sea of Japan, S by the Korea Strait, and W by the Yellow Sea.
government
Under the 19constitution, executive power is held by the president, who is elected directly by popular vote. The president is restricted to one five-year term of office and governs with a cabinet (state council) headed by a prime minister. Legislative authority resides in the single-chamber, 299-deputy national assembly Kuk Hoe, 2of whose members are directly elected for four-year terms by universal suffrage in single-member constituencies, and the remainder of whom are appointed in accordance with a formula designed to reward the largest single assembly party. The assembly has the authority to impeach the president and to override presidential vetoes. There is also a nine-member constitutional court, and guarantees of freedom of speech, press, assembly, and association are written into the constitution.
history
For early history, see Korea: history. The Republic of Korea was formed out of the zone south of the 38th parallel of latitude that was occupied by US troops after Japan's surrender 194The US military government controlled the country until, following national elections, an independent republic was declared 1948.
Dr Syngman Rhee, leader of the right-wing Liberal Party, was the nation's first president in a constitution based on the US model. To begin with, the republic had to cope with a massive influx of refugees fleeing the communist regime in the North; then came the 1950–Korean War.
military takeover
President Syngman Rhee, whose regime had been accused of corruption, resigned 19as a result of student-led disorder. A new parliamentary-style constitution gave greater power to the legislature, and the ensuing political instability precipitated a military coup led by General Park Chung Hee 196A presidential system of government was reestablished, with General Park elected president 196and a major program of industrial development began, involving government planning and financial support. This program was remarkably successful, with rapid industrial growth during the 196and 197as South Korea became a major exporter of light and heavy industrial goods.
opposition to government
Opposition to the repressive Park regime mounted during the 1970s. In response, martial law was imposed, and in 19a new constitution strengthened the president's powers. A clampdown on political dissent, launched 197was partially relaxed for the 19elections, but brought protests 19as economic conditions briefly deteriorated. President Park was assassinated later that year, and martial law was reimposed.
An interim government, led by former prime minister Choi Kyu-Hah, introduced liberalizing reforms, releasing opposition leader Kim Dae Jung 198However, as antigovernment demonstrations developed, a new dissident clampdown began, involving the arrest of political leaders, including Kim Dae Jung. After riots in Kim's home city of Kwangju, President Choi resigned 19and was replaced by the leader of the army, General Chun Doo Hwan. A new constitution was adopted, and, after Chun Doo Hwan was reelected president 198the new Fifth Republic was proclaimed.
cautious liberalization
Under President Chun economic growth resumed, but internal and external criticism of the suppression of civil liberties continued. Cautious liberalization was seen prior to the 19assembly elections, with the release of many political prisoners and the return from exile of Kim Dae Jung. After the 19election, the opposition parties launched a campaign for genuine democratization, forcing the Chun regime to frame a new, more liberal constitution, which was adopted after a referendum Oct 198The ensuing presidential election was won by the ruling party's candidate, Roh Tae Woo, amid opposition charges of fraud. He took over Feb 198but in the national assembly elections April 19the ruling Democratic Justice Party (DJP) fell well short of an overall majority. Only in Feb 199when the DJP merged with two minor opposition parties to form the Democratic Liberal Party (DLP), was a stable governing majority secured.
fear of invasion
Since 19the perceived threat of invasion from the North has been a key factor in South Korean politics, helping to justify stern rule. South Korea has devoted large resources to modernizing its armed forces, which are supported by more than 30,0US troops, assuring US intervention in the event of an invasion.
further opposition
In July 19the members of the Party for Peace and Democracy, led by Kim Dae Jung, all resigned from the national assembly in protest at government attempts to push through new legislation and demanded the calling of a general election. The assembly's speaker refused to accept the resignations, but the opposition deputies continued to boycott parliament when it reconvened in Sept. In the same month full diplomatic relations were established with the USSR.
In Dec 19the government launched a “purification” campaign designed to improve public morals and reduce materialism. In May 19at least 250,0people demonstrated and six attempted suicide in protests triggered by the beating to death of a student by police. Demands for the resignation of the government and the introduction of economic and political reform were met by the replacement of a home-affairs minister and the prime minister (from Dec 199Ro Jai Bong by Chung Won Shik, and emergency powers were given to police and security services.
In June 199after the new premier was mobbed by students, the authorities instituted a tougher response to student-led protests. In the same month, the ruling DLP secured a sweeping victory in local elections.
foreign affairs
South Korea was admitted to the United Nations Sept 199In the same month, the US declared its intention to withdraw all its nuclear weapons from South Korea and in Nov announced its plan to reduce US troops stationed in South Korea from 43,0to 36,00Despite concerns over North Korea's nuclear aspirations, the prime ministers of the two Koreas met in Seoul on Dec 19and signed a nonaggression and confidence-building pact which provided for the restoration of cross-border communications, the reunion of divided families, and the free movement of people, commerce, and ideas. On Dec 19a further pact was signed in Panmunjom in which both states agreed to ban the testing, manufacture, deployment, or possession of nuclear weapons. In Aug 19diplomatic relations with China were established.
new opposition grouping
The country's two-party structure was restored Sept 19when the opposition New Democratic Party, led by Kim Dae Jung, and the small Democratic Party, led by Lee Ki Taek, merged to form the Democratic Party, headed jointly by the two leaders. The ruling DLP lost its majority; Roh resigned as leader of the DLP in Sept.
civilian government restored
On Dec 19Kim Young Sam, candidate of the ruling DLP, won the presidential election, becoming the first president without a military background to be elected since 196In Feb 19the former general Hwang In Sung was appointed prime minister by President Kim. The new civilian government pursued a strategy of gradual deregulation of South Korea's bureaucratic economy, including some privatizations, and pushed through reforms aimed at curbing political corruption. In Dec 19Hwang In Sung resigned as premier and was replaced by Lee Hoi Chang, a former Supreme Court judge and anticorruption fighter. The US stepped up its military presence in South Korea Feb 19in response to a perceived threat from North Korea, which had resisted international inspections of its nuclear development sites and moved additional troops near to its southern border. In April 19Lee Young Duk, a former refugee from North Korea, replaced Lee Hoi Chang as prime minister. He in turn was replaced by Lee Hong Koo Dec 1994.

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