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Latvia [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

Country in N Europe, bounded E by Russia, N by Estonia, N and NW by the Baltic Sea, S by Lithuania, and SE by Belarus.
government
Parts of the 19constitution were restored 199They provided for a 210-deputy, popularly elected parliament (Saeima), whose members elect a chair to serve as state president and a prime minister.
history
The Vikings invaded the area now known as Latvia in the 9th century and the Russians attacked in the 10th century. The invasion of the Teutonic Knights (German crusaders) in the 13th century was resisted in a lengthy struggle, but Latvia eventually came under their control 123converted to Christianity, and was governed by them for more than 2years. By 15Poland and Lithuania had taken over most of the country. Sweden conquered the north 16and Russia took over control of this area 171By 18all of Latvia had come under Russian control. The Latvian independence movement began to emerge in the late 180and continued to grow in the early 20th century.
struggle for independence
Latvia was partly occupied by the Germans during World War I. The USSR reclaimed control 19but was overthrown by Germany Feb 191when Latvia declared independence. Soviet rule was restored when Germany withdrew Dec 191but Soviet forces were again overthrown by British naval and German forces May–Dec 191and democratic rule was established. A coup 19replaced the established government. In 19a secret German-Soviet agreement assigned Latvia to Soviet rule and in 19Latvia was incorporated as a constituent republic of the USSR. During World War II Latvia was again occupied by German forces 1941–4but the USSR regained control 1944.
As in the other Baltic republics, nationalist dissent grew from 198influenced by the Polish example and prompted by an influx of Russian workers and officials. A Latvian Popular Front was established Oct 19to campaign for independence and in the same month the prewar flag was readopted and official status given to the Latvian language. In the same year Anatolijs Gorbunovs was elected president. In Jan 19the Latvian Communist Party (LCP) broke its links with Moscow and in May Latvia followed the lead taken by Lithuania when it unilaterally declared independence from the USSR, subject to a transitional period for negotiation. A multiparty system emerged, the 19March–April elections resulting in a Popular Front government with Ivars Godmanis as prime minister. In Jan 19Soviet paratroopers seized key installations in Riga, but withdrew later that month after international protests.
independence
A plebiscite in March 19voted in favor of independence. During the coup attempt against President Gorbachev in the USSR, Soviet troops seized the radio and television station in Riga. In response, on Aug 199the republic declared its immediate independence and outlawed the CP. This declaration was recognized by the Soviet government and Western nations Sept 19and the new state was granted membership in the United Nations. In Feb 19US vice president Dan Quayle reopened the US embassy, closed since the Baltic takeover 194In March Russia agreed to a pullout of ex-Soviet troops from Latvia, to be completed by 199In July 19Latvia curbed the rights of non-citizens, prompting Russia to ask the UN for the protection of minorities in that country.
The June 19general election produced a coalition government centered around the Latvian Way, led by acting president Anatolijs Gorbunovs, and the Latvian Peasants' Union (LZS). Guntis Ulmanis, leader of the LZS, was elected state president, with Gorbunovs as parliamentary speaker and Valdis Birkavs as prime minister. The new government pledged to continue its program of economic reform, aiming to secure privatization of at least 7of state enterprises by 19while providing strong support for farmers. Birkavs and his government resigned July 199and Maris Gailis was appointed premier. The last Russian troops left Latvia Aug 1994.

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