Humor based on the grotesque, morbid, or macabre. It is often an element of satire. A classic example is Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal 1729, in which he argues that eating Irish children would help to alleviate Ireland’s poverty. Twentieth-century examples can be found in the works of Samuel Beckett, the routines of the US comic Lenny Bruce (1925–1966), and the drawings of the English caricaturist Gerald Scarfe (1936– ). It is also an important element of Theatre of the Absurd.