Hardwood on either side of bowsprit through which forestays are reeved.
A gathering of people for a specific purpose
Stari narodni običaj da komšije pomažu pri većim seoskim radovima, besplatno ili na principu uzajamnosti.
Zbor, saziv, sastanak.
ETYM as. beó; akin to Dutch bij and bije, Icel. bi, Swed. and Dan. bi, Old High Germ. pini, German biene, and perh. Irish beach, Lith. bitis, Skr. bha.
Four-winged insect of the superfamily Apoidea in the order Hymenoptera, usually with a sting. There are over 12,000 species, of which fewer than 1 in 20 are social in habit. The hive bee or honey bee Apis mellifera establishes perennial colonies of about 80,000, the majority being infertile females (workers), with a few larger fertile males (drones), and a single very large fertile female (the queen). Worker bees live for no more than a few weeks, while a drone may live a few months, and a queen several years. Queen honey bees lay two kinds of eggs: fertilized, female eggs, which have two sets of chromosomes and develop into workers or queens, and unfertilized, male eggs, which have only one set of chromosomes and develop into drones.
Bees transmit information to each other about food sources by “dances”, each movement giving rise to sound impulses which are picked up by tiny hairs on the back of the bee’s head, the orientation of the dance also having significance. They use the Sun in navigation (see migration). Besides their use in crop pollination and production of honey and wax, bees (by a measure of contaminants brought back to their hives) can provide an inexpensive and effective monitor of industrial and other pollution of the atmosphere and soil.
The most familiar species is the bumblebee, genus Bombus, which is larger and stronger than the hive bee and so is adapted to fertilize plants in which the pollen and nectar lie deep, as in red clover; they can work in colder weather than the hive bee.
Social bees, apart from the bumblebee and the hive bee, include the stingless South American vulture bee Trigona hypogea, discovered 1982, which is solely carnivorous.
Solitary bees include species useful in pollinating orchards in spring, and may make their nests in tunnels under the ground or in hollow plant stems; “cuckoo” bees lay their eggs in the nests of bumblebees, which they closely resemble.
Most bees are pacific unless disturbed, but some species are aggressive. One bee sting may be fatal to a person who is allergic to them, but this is comparatively rare (about 1.5% of the population), and most adults can survive 300–500 stings without treatment. A vaccine treatment against bee stings, which uses concentrated venom, has been developed; see melitin.
The killer bees of South America are a hybrid type, created when an African subspecies of honey bee escaped from a research establishment in Brazil 1957. They mated with, and supplanted, the honey bees of European origin in most of South and Central America, and by 1990 had spread as far north as Texas, us. As well as being more productive and resistant to disease than European honey bees, they also defend their hives more aggressively, in larger numbers, and for a greater length of time than other honeybees. However, their stings are no more venomous, and although they have killed hundreds of thousands of animals and probably more than 1,000 people, most individuals survive an attack, and almost all deaths have occurred where the victim has somehow been prevented from fleeing.
In 1995 us scientists extracted bacterial spores from the gut of a bee fossilized in amber up to 40 million years ago. The spores were successfully germinated, and the resultant bacteria included a relative of a modern bacterium still found in the bee gut to aid digestion.
1. Any of numerous hairy-bodied, nectar collecting insects of the genus Apis, including both social and solitary species.
2. A social gathering to carry out some communal task or to hold competitions.
Vredni medonosni insekt, baštovani prirode, lete od cveta do cveta skupljajući polen.