A republic in central Africa; formerly controlled (as part of Northern Rhodesia) by Great Britain until it gained independence within the Commonwealth in 1964.
Landlocked country in S central Africa, bounded N by Zaire and Tanzania, E by Malawi, S by Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Namibia, and W by Angola.
Zambia is an independent republic within the Commonwealth. The 1991 constitution provides for a multiparty state. The state president is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term, renewable only once. The president governs with an appointed cabinet and is advised by the House of Chiefs, consisting of chiefs from the country's nine provinces. There is a single-chamber, 150-member national assembly, also elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term.
For early history, see Africa. The country was visited by the Portuguese in the late 18th century and by Livingstone 1851. As Northern Rhodesia it became a British protectorate 1924, together with the former kingdom of Barotseland (now Western Province), taken under British protection at the request of its ruler 1890.
From 1953 the country, with Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and Nyasaland (now Malawi), was part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, dissolved 1963. Northern Rhodesia became the independent Republic of Zambia 1964, within the Commonwealth, with Dr Kenneth Kaunda, leader of the United National Independence Party (UNIP), as its first president. Between 1964 and 1972, when it was declared a one-party state, Zambia was troubled with frequent outbreaks of violence because of disputes within the governing party and conflicts among the country's more than 70 tribes.
relations with Rhodesia
Zambia was economically dependent on neighboring white-ruled Rhodesia but tolerated liberation groups operating on the border, and relations between the two countries deteriorated. The border was closed 1973, and in 1976 Kaunda declared his support for the Patriotic Front, led by Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo, which was fighting the white regime in Rhodesia. Despite his imposition of strict economic policies, Kaunda was reelected 1983 and again Oct 1988, unopposed, for a sixth consecutive term.
end of Kaunda presidency
In 1990, in response to the growing strength of the opposition Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), President Kaunda announced the introduction of a multiparty system for Oct 1991. The MMD applied for formal registration as a political party and the formation of the National Democratic Alliance (Nada) was announced. Elections took place, on schedule, and the MMD won an overwhelming victory. Frederick Chiluba was sworn in as Zambia's new president 2 Nov 1991, bringing to an end the 27-year leadership of Kaunda.
During 1991–92 southern Africa experienced its worst drought this century and as a result Zambia suffered dire food and water shortages 1992–93. In March–April 1993 a state of emergency was declared in response to reports of a planned antigovernment coup.
Država u Africi, nekada "Severna Rodezija".