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Bangladesh [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

Country in southern Asia, bounded N, W, and E by India, SE by Myanmar, and S by the Bay of Bengal.
government
The 19constitution, which provided for a parliamentary system of government, was suspended 19and replaced by a presidentialist constitution 198It was restored 199It provides for a single-chamber legislature, the Jatiya Sangsad, which consists of 3members directly elected for five-year terms and women elected by the legislature itself. A prime minister and cabinet is drawn from the grouping which commands a majority within the parliament. The president, who now has a largely ceremonial role, is elected by the parliament.
history
For history before 19see India; for history 1947–see Pakistan. Present-day Bangladesh formerly comprised East Bengal province and the Sylhet district of Assam in British India. Predominantly Muslim, it was formed into the eastern province of Pakistan when India was partitioned 194Substantially different in culture, language, and geography from the western provinces of Pakistan 1,6km/1,0mi away, and with a larger population, it resented the political and military dominance exerted by West Pakistan during the 195and 1960s. A movement for political autonomy grew after 195under the Awami League headed by Sheik Mujibur Rahman. This gained strength as a result of West Pakistan's indifference 197when flooding killed 500,0in East Pakistan.
republic proclaimed
In Pakistan’s first general elections, in 197the Awami League gained an overwhelming victory in East Pakistan and an overall majority in the all-Pakistan National Assembly. Talks on redrawing the constitution broke down, leading to East Pakistan’s secession and the establishment of a Bangladesh (“Bengal nation”) government in exile in Calcutta, India, 197Civil war resulted in the flight of million East Pakistani refugees to India, administrative breakdown, famine, and cholera. The West Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered 19after India intervened on the secessionists’ side. A republic of Bangladesh was proclaimed and rapidly gained international recognition 1972.
first leader assassinated
Sheik Mujibur Rahman became prime minister 19under a secular, parliamentary constitution. He introduced a socialist economic program of nationalization but became intolerant of opposition, establishing a one-party presidential system Jan 197Rahman, his wife, and close relatives were assassinated in a military coup Aug 1975.
martial law under Zia
Maj Gen Zia ur-Rahman (1936–198became chief martial-law administrator 197President from 197he adopted an Islamic constitution and, after his Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) won a parliamentary majority, martial law and the state of emergency were lifted 197The administration was undermined, however, by charges of corruption and by a guerrilla movement in the Chittagong Hill Tracts 198and on May 19Zia was assassinated.
coup led by Ershad
With disorder increasing, the civilian administration was overthrown March 19by Lt Gen Mohammad Hussain Ershad. Martial law was reimposed and political activity banned. Under Ershad, the economy improved but a broad opposition coalition, the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy, developed.
contentious elections
The ban on political activity was removed Jan 198In parliamentary elections held in May, Ershad's Jatiya Dal party gained a two-thirds majority after a substantial opposition boycott. Ershad was reelected president in a direct election Oct 198and martial law was lifted Nov 1986.
opposition to government
During 19the Awami League, led by Sheika Hasina Wazed (the daughter of Sheik Mujibur Rahman), and the BNP, led by Begum Khaleda Zia (the widow of Maj Gen Zia ur-Rahman), stepped up their campaign against the Ershad government, demanding the president's resignation and free elections. In the wake of a wave of violent strikes and demonstrations, Ershad proclaimed a state of emergency Nov 198In fresh elections March 198as a result of both ballot rigging and an opposition boycott, the ruling Jatiya Dal gained a sweeping victory. The state of emergency was lifted April 198and a bill was passed by parliament June 19making Islam the state religion.
Chittagong Hill Tracts
The Jatiya Sangsad (parliament) approved legislation 19devolving power to directly elected, substantially autonomous councils in three Chittagong Hill Tract districts in SE Bangladesh, where the indigenous people had fought a 14-year resistance struggle led by the Shanti Bahini (“peace force”) organization against settlers protected by the army.
Ershad resigns
On 4 Dec 199after a protracted campaign for the government's removal, Ershad resigned and the state of emergency was lifted, parliament dissolved, and Shahabuddin Ahmad, the country's chief justice, became interim executive president. Police raids on Ershad's residence revealed large-scale corruption.
free elections
When multiparty elections were held Feb 199the BNP emerged as the dominant force, capturing 1of the 3seats. Begum Khaleda Zia, leader of the BNP, formed a coalition government, becoming the first woman prime minister of Bangladesh.
parliamentary government restored
In late July 199the new government, rocked by a cyclone disaster, introduced a deregulationary New Industrial Policy to boost private enterprise and encourage foreign investment. A nationwide referendum Sept 19restored a parliamentary system of government, and in the same month by-elections secured an absolute majority in parliament for the BNP. Begum Khaleda Zia became prime minister. In Oct 19parliament elected its speaker Abdur Rahman Biswas to succeed Shahabuddin Ahmad as state president.
government bows to opposition pressure
From March 199following accusations of government vote-rigging in recent by-elections, the opposition Awami League boycotted parliament and organized street protests. Further demonstrations and a nationwide general strike followed a radio interview in which author Taslima Nasreen called for a thorough revision of the Koranic texts to meet contemporary needs. Islamic fundamentalist groups filed suit against the author who was later granted bail and fled the country in the face of a death threat. Fundamentalists were also exerting pressure on the government to impose Islamic law (shari'a) and to expel Western aid workers. In Dec 19Prime Minister Zia bowed to opposition pressure and agreed to resign a week prior to the 19elections.
foreign relations
Bangladesh has remained a member of the Commonwealth since 197It has been heavily dependent on foreign economic aid but has pursued a broader policy of the nonaligned movement. Relations with India have deteriorated since 19as a result of disputes over the sharing of Ganges water and the annual influx of 200,0Bangladeshi refugees in Assam and West Bengal, which has prompted India to threaten to construct a frontier fence. In Jan 19Bangladesh became a refuge for around 60,0Muslims fleeing military crackdowns in Myanmar. The influx caused a further drain on the country's already scanty resources.
living standards
Bangladesh is the most densely populated country in the world, with more than 2,2people per sq mi. Only 1of the people live in urban areas; 46.of the population is under 1and 7of women have their first child by the age of 1There is an estimated one doctor for every 9,0people and one nurse for every 20,000.
A Moslem Republic in southern Asia bordered by India to the north and west and east and the Bay of Bengal to the south; formerly part of India and then part of Pakistan; it achieved independence in 197Also called: East Pakistan.

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