Taking place over public roads
ETYM as. râd a riding, that on which one rides or travels, a road, from rîdan to ride. Related to Ride, Raid.
1. A way or means to achieve something.
2. An open way (generally public) for travel or transportation; SYN. route.
Specially constructed route for wheeled vehicles to travel on.
Reinforced tracks became necessary with the invention of wheeled vehicles in about 3000 BC and most ancient civilizations had some form of road network. The Romans developed engineering techniques that were not equaled for another 1,400 years.
Until the late 18th century most European roads were haphazardly maintained, making winter travel difficult. In the UK the turnpike system of collecting tolls created some improvement. The Scottish engineers Thomas Telford and John McAdam introduced sophisticated construction methods in the early 19th century. Recent developments have included durable surface compounds and machinery for rapid ground preparation.
In the US, the first roads were paved in colonial times, first with logs (corduroy roads), later with cobblestones and Belgian building blocks or brick, depending on the region. With the advent of motor vehicles, roads were constructed to reduce time spent draining, fixing flat tires, and seeking services; highways, parkways, freeways, and interstates now offer multilane, landscaped roads, with service areas at roadside, including motels, restaurants, and service stations.