(1928-) US film director. He established his reputation with the Indian-made Shakespeare Wallah 1965, which began collaborations with Ishmail Merchant and writer Ruth Prawer Jhabvala. Ivory subsequently directed films in various genres in India, the US and Europe, but became associated with adaptations of classic literature, including The Bostonians 1984, A Room with a View 1987, Maurice 1987, and Howards End 1992. He directed The Remains of the Day 1993, and Jefferson in Paris 1995.
ETYM Old Eng. ivori, French ivoire, from Latin eboreus made of ivory, from ebur, eboris, ivory, cf. Skr. ibha elephant. Related to Eburnean.
The hard white substance of which the teeth and tusks of certain mammals are composed. Among the most valuable are elephants' tusks, which are of unusual hardness and density. Ivory is used in carving and other decorative work, and is so valuable that poachers continue to illegally destroy the remaining wild elephant herds in Africa to obtain it.
Poaching for ivory has led to the decline of the African elephant population from 2 million to approximately 600,000, with the species virtually extinct in some countries. Trade in ivory was halted by Kenya 1989, but Zimbabwe continued its policy of controlled culling to enable the elephant population to thrive and to release ivory for export. China and Hong Kong have refused to obey an international ban on ivory trading. Vegetable ivory is used for buttons, toys, and cheap ivory goods. It consists of the hard albumen of the seeds of a tropical palm Phytelephas macrocarpa, and is imported from Colombia.
A hard smooth ivory colored dentine that makes up most of the tusks of elephants and walruses; SYN. tusk.