(1838-1912) English campaigner for housing reform and public open spaces. She cofounded the National Trust 1894.
(1795-1879) British Post Office official who invented adhesive stamps and prompted the introduction of the penny prepaid post in 1840 (previously the addressee paid, according to distance, on receipt).
(1899-1991) British biochemist who showed that during photosynthesis, oxygen is produced, and that this derived oxygen comes from water. This process is now known as the Hill reaction. He also demonstrated the evolution of oxygen in human blood cells by the conversion of hemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin.
Hill was educated at Cambridge and remained researching there until 1938. From 1943 to 1966 he was a member of the scientific staff of the Agricultural Research Council.
The process of photosynthesis has been shown to occur in two separate sets of reactions, those that require sunlight (the light reactions) and those that do not (the dark reactions). Both sets of reactions are dependent on one another. In the light reactions some of the energy of sunlight is trapped within the plant and in the dark reactions this energy is used to produce potentially energy-generating chemicals, such as sugar.
Hill's experiments in 1937 confirmed that the light reactions of photosynthesis occur within the chloroplasts of leaves, as well as elucidating in part the mechanism of the light reactions. To do this, he isolated chloroplasts from leaves and then illuminated them in the presence of an artificial electron-acceptor.
(c. 1872-1915) Swedish-born US labor organizer. A member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW, “Wobblies”), he was convicted of murder on circumstantial evidence in Salt Lake City, Utah, 1914. Despite calls by President Wilson and the Swedish government for a retrial, Hill was executed 1915, becoming a martyr for the labor movement.
Born in Sweden, Hill emigrated to the US 1901. His original name is given variously as Joel Emmanuel Haaglund (or Hagglund) or Joseph Hillstrom. He frequently contributed to the IWW’s Solidarity and Industrial Worker and is remembered for his many popular pro-union songs.
(1929-1975) English race-car driver. He won the Dutch Grand Prix in 1962, progressing to the world driver's title in 1962 and 1968. In 1972 he became the first Formula One World Champion to win the Le Mans Grand Prix d'Endurance (Le Mans 24-Hour Race).
Hill started his Formula One career with Lotus 1958, went to BRM 1960–66, returned to Lotus 1967–69, moved to Brabham 1970–72, and formed his own team, Embassy Shadow, 1973–75. He was killed in an airplane crash. His son Damon won his first Grand Prix in 1993, making them the first father and son to both win a Grand Prix.
World champion: 1962 (BRM), 1968 (Lotus)
Formula One Grand Prix: 176
Le Mans Grand Prix d'Endurance: 1972 (Matra-Simca)
Indianapolis 500: 1966 (Lola Ford)
(Alfred) (1924-1992) English comedian. His television shows, which first appeared in 1952, combined the bawdy humor of the seaside postcard with the manic slapstick of the silent cinema, a format which he perfected but never really changed.
Hill was born in Southampton. His early career included work as a milkman and a period in the army during World War II, where he also appeared as a forces entertainer. As well as writing all the scripts and music for his shows, he often played all the characters himself. Regarded as too risqué early in his career, he was later condemned for being sexist, but many critics nevertheless saw him as the last of the great visual comics.
(1886-1977) English physiologist who studied muscle action and especially the amount of heat produced during muscle activity. For this work he shared the 1922 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
Hill was born in Bristol and educated at Cambridge. He was professor at Manchester 1920–23 and at the Royal Society 1923–51. He also served as scientific adviser to India 1943–44 and was a member of the War Cabinet Scientific Advisory Committee during World War II.
To record minute heat changes, Hill modified delicate thermocouples, and discovered by 1913 that contracting muscle fibers produce heat in two phases. Heat is first produced quickly as the muscle contracts. Then, after the initial contraction, further heat is evolved more slowly but often in greater amounts. Hill also showed that molecular oxygen is consumed after the work of the muscles is over but not during muscular contraction.
ETYM Old Eng. hil, hul, AS. hyll; akin to OD. hille, hil, Latin collis, and prob. to Eng. haulm, holm, and column. Related to Holm.
A local and well-defined elevation of the land.
To form into a hill.