(1777-1855) German mathematician who worked on the theory of numbers, non-Euclidean geometry, and the mathematical development of electric and magnetic theory. A method of neutralizing a magnetic field, used to protect ships from magnetic mines, is called “degaussing”.
In statistics, the normal distribution curve, which he studied, is sometimes known as the Gaussian distribution.
Between 1800 and 1810 Gauss concentrated on astronomy. He developed a quick method for calculating an asteroid's orbit from only three observations and published this work—a classic in astronomy—1809.
Gauss was born in Brunswick and studied there at the Collegium Carolinum, and at Göttingen and Helmstedt. By 1799 he had already made nearly all his fundamental mathematical discoveries. He spent most of his career at Göttingen, becoming professor of mathematics and director of the observatory.
Gauss was also a pioneer in topology, and he worked besides on crystallography, optics, mechanics, and capillarity. After 1831, he collaborated with physicist Wilhelm Weber on research into electricity and magnetism, and in 1833 they invented an electromagnetic telegraph.
Disquisitiones arithmeticae 1801 summed up Gauss’s work in number theory and formulated concepts and questions that are still relevant today.
(1777-1855) German mathematician anad astronomer, known for theories regarding probability.
ETYM So named after Karl French Gauss, a German mathematician.
(Irregular plural: gausses).
A unit of magnetic flux density equal to 1 maxwell per square centimeter.
C.g.s. unit (symbol Gs) of magnetic induction or magnetic flux density, replaced by the SI unit, the tesla, but still commonly used. It is equal to one line of magnetic flux per square centimeter. The Earth’s magnetic field is about 0.5 Gs, and changes to it over time are measured in gammas (one gamma equals 10-5 gauss).
Electrical unit of magnetic induction, formerly of magnetic intensity.
Unit of magnetic flux density equal to 1/10000 tesla.