(1921-1957) English horn player. The greatest virtuoso of his day, he inspired composers including Britten and Hindemith to write pieces for him, such as Britten’s Serenade 1943 for tenor, horn, and strings.
ETYM Old Eng. brain, brein, AS. bragen, braegen; akin to LG. brägen, bregen, Dutch brein.
In higher animals, a mass of interconnected nerve cells forming the anterior part of the central nervous system, whose activities it coordinates and controls. In vertebrates, the brain is contained by the skull. At the base of the brainstem, the medulla oblongata contains centers for the control of respiration, heartbeat rate and strength, and blood pressure. Overlying this is the cerebellum, which is concerned with coordinating complex muscular processes such as maintaining posture and moving limbs.
The cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum) are paired outgrowths of the front end of the forebrain, in early vertebrates mainly concerned with the senses, but in higher vertebrates greatly developed and involved in the integration of all sensory input and motor output, and in thought, emotions, memory, and behavior.
In vertebrates, many of the nerve fibers from the two sides of the body cross over as they enter the brain, so that the left cerebral hemisphere is associated with the right side of the body and vice versa. In humans, a certain asymmetry develops in the two halves of the cerebrum. In right-handed people, the left hemisphere seems to play a greater role in controlling verbal and some mathematical skills, whereas the right hemisphere is more involved in spatial perception. In general, however, skills and abilities are not closely localized. In the brain, nerve impulses are passed across synapses by neurotransmitters, in the same way as in other parts of the nervous system.
In mammals the cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, carrying the cerebral cortex. This consists of a thick surface layer of cell bodies (gray matter), below which fiber tracts (white matter) connect various parts of the cortex to each other and to other points in the central nervous system. As cerebral complexity grows, the surface of the brain becomes convoluted into deep folds. In higher mammals, there are large unassigned areas of the brain that seem to be connected with intelligence, personality, and higher mental faculties. Language is controlled in two special regions usually in the left side of the brain: Broca’s area governs the ability to talk, and Wernicke’s area is responsible for the comprehension of spoken and written words. In 1990, scientists at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, succeeded in culturing human brain cells.
1. Mental ability; SYN. brainpower, learning ability, mental capacity, mentality, wit.
2. That part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord; SYN. encephalon.
3. The brain of certain animals used as meat.
1. To hit on the head.
2. To kill by smashing someone's skull.