Peasants' Revol ... | engleski leksikon

1. Peasants' Revolt


The rising of the English peasantry in June 1381, the result of economic, social, and political disillusionment. It was sparked off by the imposition of a new poll tax, three times the rates of those imposed in 1377 and 1379. Led by Wat Tyler and John Ball, rebels from SE England marched on London and demanded reforms. The authorities put down the revolt by deceit and force.
Following the plague of the Black Death, a shortage of agricultural workers led to higher wages. The Statute of Labourers, enacted 1351, attempted to return wages to pre-plague levels. When the third poll tax was enforced 1381, riots broke out all over England, especially in Essex and Kent. Wat Tyler and John Ball emerged as leaders and the rebels went on to London, where they continued plundering, burning John of Gaunt's palace at the Savoy, and taking the prisons at Newgate and Fleet. The young king Richard II attempted to appease the mob, who demanded an end to serfdom and feudalism. The rebels then took the Tower of London and murdered Archbishop Sudbury and Robert Hales. Again the king attempted to make peace at Smithfield, but Tyler was stabbed to death by William Walworth, the Lord Mayor of London. The king made concessions to the rebels, and they dispersed, but the concessions were revoked immediately.

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