(1913-1994) Polish composer and conductor. His fastidious output includes three symphonies, Paroles tissées/Teased Words 1965 for tenor and chamber orchestra, dedicated to Peter Pears, and Chain I for orchestra 1981. For 30 years he conducted most of the world’s leading orchestras in his own compositions.
His early major compositions, such as Variations on a Theme of Paganini 1941 for two pianos and First Symphony 1947, drew some criticism from the communist government. After 1956, under a more liberal regime, he adopted avant-garde techniques, including improvisatory and aleatoric forms, in Venetian Games 1961.