(1918-1990) US composer, conductor, and pianist. He was one of the most energetic and versatile of US musicians in the 20th century. His works, which established a vogue for realistic, contemporary themes, include symphonies such as The Age of Anxiety 1949, ballets such as Fancy Free 1944, and scores for musicals, including Wonderful Town 1953, West Side Story 1957, and Mass 1971 in memory of President J F Kennedy.
Born in Lawrence, Massachusetts, he was educated at Harvard University and the Curtis Institute of Music. From 1958 to 1970 he was musical director of the New York Philharmonic. Among his other works are Jeremiah 1944, Facsimile 1946, Candide 1956, and the Chichester Psalms 1965.
(1929-) US mathematical physicist who has written many articles and books on various topics of pure and applied science for the nonspecialist reader. He has also sought to give a mathematical analysis and description of the behavior of elementary particles.
Bernstein was born in Rochester, New York, and educated at Harvard. He held academic posts there and at New York University before becoming professor of physics at the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey, 1967. He has also been a consultant to the Rand Corporation and the General Atomic Company.
In 1962 Bernstein joined the staff of the urbane magazine the New Yorker. His lengthy articles for that magazine include The analytical engine: computers, past, present and future. He published a general survey of the historical progress of scientific knowledge, Ascent, 1965, and a biography of Albert Einstein 1973.
(1850-1932) German socialist thinker, journalist, and politician. He was elected to the Reichstag 1902. He was a proponent of reformist rather than revolutionary socialism, whereby a socialist society could be achieved within an existing parliamentary structure merely by workers' parties obtaining a majority.
(1924-) British sociologist of education. He observed that the language of working-class children, who were often socially disadvantaged, was considerably more restricted than that of middle-class children. This led him to study how social origins affect the ability to communicate with others.
He proposed a theory of “restricted” and “elaborated” codes, or forms of language, that characterize the language of working-class and middle-class children respectively. However, this does not imply that there is a direct or causal link between status and language ability, rather that it is the social relationships in which the child interacts and their communicative demands that shape linguistic potential.
Bernstein joined London University, where in 1963 he set up a sociological research unit. He reported his research in several academic articles; many are published in Class, Codes and Control. Vol 1: Theoretical Studies in the Sociology of Language 1971.