Julius Caesar's final victory over Pompey's forces near Pharsalus (now Farsala) in Thessaly 9 Aug 48 BC. After their comprehensive defeat at Pharsalus, the remainder of Pompey's force surrendered, ending all organized resistance to Caesar's rule.
The battle began well for Pompey, who outnumbered Caesar's 22,000 troops two-to-one; his cavalry charged Caesar's cavalry and forced them back. However, this exposed their flank to attack by Caesar's foot soldiers who took full advantage of this weakness, causing the Pompeian cavalry to fall into total disorder and finally ride clear of the battle entirely. The Pompeian foot soldiers heard of their cavalry's panic-stricken flight and themselves turned and ran, pursued by Caesar's troops. The Pompeians were totally routed, losing 8,000 troops compared to only 200 of Caesar's.