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Venecuela [ ženski rod {geologija} ]

Država u Africi.

Venezuela [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

A republic in northern South America on the Caribbean; rich in oil.
Country in N South America, on the Caribbean Sea, bounded E by Guyana, S by Brazil, and W by Colombia.
government
Venezuela is a federal republic of states, two federal territories, and a federal district based on the capital, Caracas. The 19constitution provides for a president, who is head of state and head of government, and a two-chamber national congress, consisting of a senate and a chamber of deputies. The president is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term and may not serve two consecutive terms. The president appoints and presides over a council of ministers.
The senate has members elected by universal suffrage, on the basis of two representatives for each state and two for the federal district, plus any living ex-presidents. The chamber has 2deputies, also elected by universal suffrage. Both chambers serve five-year terms, concurrent with that of the president.
history
For early history, see Native American, South America. Columbus visited Venezuela 149and there was a Spanish settlement from 152In 18a rebellion against Spain began, led by Simón Bolívar, and Venezuela became independent 1830.
dictatorship
Venezuela's first president, General José Antonio Páez, established 1830–the pattern of dictatorial rule. The claims of competing caudillos (military leaders) kept the country in a state of constant turmoil.
greater stability
Venezuela adopted a new constitution 196and three years later Rómulo Betancourt became the first president to have served a full term of office. He was succeeded by Dr Raúl Leoni 19and by Dr Rafael Caldera 196The latter did much to bring economic and political stability, although underground abductions and assassinations still occurred. In 19Carlos Andrés Pérez, of the Democratic Action Party, became president, and stability increased. In 19Dr Luis Herrera, leader of the Social Christian Party, was elected.
austerity policies
Against a background of growing economic problems, the 19general election was contested by parties and presidential candidates. It was a bitterly fought campaign and resulted in the election of Dr Jaime Lusinchi as president and a win for the Democratic Action Party with an absolute majority in congress. President Lusinchi's austere economic policies were unpopular, and he tried to conclude a social pact among the government, labor unions, and business. He reached an agreement with the government's creditor bankers for a rescheduling of Venezuela's large public debt.
In 19Venezuela suspended payment on its foreign debt, which had grown due to a drop in oil prices since the 1970s. In Feb 198newly elected president Carlos Andrés Pérez instituted price increases and other austerity measures designed to satisfy $4.3 billion loan terms imposed by the International Monetary Fund. Riots followed in which at least 3people were killed and in May a general strike was called in protest at the austerity program. Elections held in Dec were boycotted by the main opposition groups. At a meeting in Caracas May 199the leaders of the Andean Common market countries agreed to create a Latin American free-trade zone.
Throughout 19and 19dissatisfaction with the austerity program increased, resulting in more violent demonstrations, especially by students. In Feb 19an attempted coup by a group of army officers was foiled by troops loyal to the president. Pressured by mounting public unrest, Pérez promised major constitutional reforms. A second coup in Nov was also abortive. In May 19the supreme court ruled that Pérez could be tried on corruption charges, and Ramon José Velasquez became interim president. In the Dec 19presidential elections former president Dr Rafael Caldera was successful. In May 19Pérez was arrested and placed under house arrest pending trial. The country's financial situation continued to deteriorate, prompting Caldera to announce economic-stabilization measures Nov 1994.



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