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Croatia [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

A Balkan republic; formerly part of Yugoslavia.
(Serbo-Croatian Hrvatska) Country in central Europe, bounded N by Slovenia and Hungary, W by the Adriatic Sea, and E by Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Yugoslavian republic of Serbia.
government
Under the 19constitution, there is a two-chamber parliament, consisting of a chamber of representatives, with between 1and 1seats, and a chamber of municipalities. Each serves a four-year term. The president is popularly elected for a five-year term. Election contests are majoritarian, and there is a second-round runoff race if no candidate secures a majority of the vote in the first round.
history
Part of Pannonia in Roman times, the region was settled by Carpathian Croats in the 7th century. Roman Catholicism was adopted 105For most of the 8years from 11Croatia was an autonomous kingdom under the Hungarian crown, but often a battleground between Hungary, Byzantium, and Venice. After 152most of the country came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, returning to the Hungarian crown only after the Peace of Karlovitz 1699.
Croatia was briefly an Austrian crownland 18and again a Hungarian crownland 186It was included in the kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes formed 19(called Yugoslavia from 1929). During World War II a Nazi puppet state, “Greater Croatia”, was established April 19under Ante Pavelic (1889–1959). As many as 100,0Serbs and 55,0Jews were massacred by this Croatian regime, which sought to establish a “pure” Croatian Catholic republic. In Nov 19it became a constituent republic within the Yugoslav Socialist Federal Republic, whose dominant figure was Marshal Tito.
Serb–Croat separatism
From the 1970s, resentful of perceived Serb dominance of the Yugoslav Federation, a violent separatist movement began to gain ground. Nationalist agitation continued through the 198and there was mounting industrial unrest from 19as spiraling inflation caused a sharp fall in living standards. In an effort to court popularity and concerned at the Serb chauvinism of Slobodan Milosevic, the Croatia League of Socialists (communists), later renamed the Party of Democratic Renewal (PDR), adopted an increasingly anti-Serb line from the mid-1980s. Following Slovenia's lead, it allowed the formation of rival political parties from 198In the multiparty republic elections of April–May 199the PDR was comprehensively defeated by the right-wing nationalist Croatian Democratic Union (CDU). Led by Franjo Tudjman, who had been imprisoned in 19for his nationalist activities, the CDU secured almost a two-thirds assembly majority. Tudjman became president.
secession from Yugoslavia
In Feb 19the Croatian assembly, along with that of neighboring Catholic Slovenia, issued a proclamation calling for secession from Yugoslavia and the establishment of a new confederation that excluded Serbia and Montenegro. It also ordered the creation of an independent Croatian army. Concerned at possible maltreatment in a future independent Croatia, Serb militants announced March 19the secession from Croatia of the self-proclaimed “Serbian Autonomous Region of Krajina”, containing 250,0Serbs. In a May 19referendum there was 9support in Krajina for its remaining with Serbia and Montenegro within a residual Yugoslavia. A week later, Croatia’s electors voted overwhelmingly (93%) for independence within a loose confederation of Yugoslav sovereign states. On June 19the Croatian government, in concert with Slovenia, issued a unilateral declaration of independence.
civil war
From July 19there was escalating conflict with the Serb-dominated Yugoslav army and civil war within Croatia. Independent Serbian “governments” were proclaimed in Krajina and in eastern and western Slavonia. A succession of cease-fires ordered by the Yugoslav federal presidency and the European Community passed unobserved and by Sept 19at least a third of Croatia had fallen under Serb control, with intense fighting taking place around the towns of Osijek and Vukovar. Croatia’s ports were besieged and at least 500,0people were made refugees. Rich in oil, Croatia retaliated with an oil-supply blockade on Serbia and announced, in Oct 199that it had formally severed all official relations with Yugoslavia.
cease-fire agreed
In early Jan 19a peace plan was successfully brokered in Sarajevo by United Nations (UN) envoy Cyrus Vance. The agreement provided for an immediate cease-fire, the full withdrawal of the Yugoslav army from Croatia, and the deployment of 10,0UN troops in contested Krajina and E and W Slavonia until a political settlement was worked out. This accord was disregarded by the breakaway Serb leader in Krajina, Milan Babic, but recognized by the main Croatian and Serbian forces. Under German pressure, Croatia's and Slovenia's independence was recognized by the EC and the US early 199and in May by the UN.
UN peacekeeping force established
During March and April 1914,0UN peacekeeping forces were drafted into Croatia and gradually took control of Krajina, although Croatian forces continued to shell Krajina's capital, Knin. Tudjman was directly elected president in Aug, and the CDU won an overwhelming victory in concurrent assembly elections. In Jan 19Croatia launched a surprise offensive into Serbian-held territory in the disputed enclave of Krajina, violating the 19UN peace agreement, and the UN voted unanimously to extend its peacekeeping mandate in Croatia. A new government was sworn in April 1993.

Hrvatska [ ženski rod {geologija} ]

Država u Evropi, na Balkanu.

Kroacija [ ženski rod {geologija} ]

Hrvatski naziv za Hrvatsku. (lat.9



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