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1. calligraphy


Sinonimi: penmanship

ETYM Greek: cf. French calligraphie.
Beautiful handwriting; SYN. penmanship.
Art of handwriting, regarded in China and Japan as the greatest of the visual arts, and playing a large part in Islamic art because the depiction of the human and animal form is forbidden.
The present letter forms have gradually evolved from originals shaped by the tools used to make them—the flat brush on paper, the chisel on stone, the stylus on wax and clay, and the reed and quill on papyrus and skin.
In Europe during the 4th and 5th centuries books were written in square capitals (“majuscules”) derived from classical Roman inscriptions (Trajan’s Column in Rome is the outstanding example). The rustic capitals of the same period were written more freely, the pen being held at a severe angle so that the scribe was less frequently inclined to change the angle for special flourishes. Uncial capitals, more rounded, were used from the 4th to the 8th centuries. During this period the cursive hand was also developing, and the interplay of this with the formal hands, coupled with the need for speedier writing, led to the small letter forms (“minuscules”). During the 7th century the half-uncial was developed with ascending and descending strokes and was adopted by all countries under Roman rule. The cursive forms developed differently in different countries. In Italy the italic script was evolved and became the model for italic typefaces.
Printing and the typewriter reduced the need for calligraphy in the West until the 20th-century revival inspired by Edward Johnston (1872–1944).

2. chirography


Study of handwriting or penmanship.

3. clerkliness


4. clerkship


The job of clerk.

5. copy


Sinonimi: written matter

ETYM French copie, from Latin copia abundance, number, Late Lat. also, a transcript; co- + the root of opes riches. Related to Opulent, Copious.
1. An imitation or reproduction of an original.
2. Material suitable for a journalistic account.
3. Matter to be printed; exclusive of graphical materials; SYN. written matter.

6. fist


Sinonimi: clenched fist

ETYM Old Eng. fist, fust, AS. fyst; akin to Dutch vuist, Old High Germ. fűst, German faust, and prob. to Latin pugnus, Greek pygme fist, pyx with the fist. Related to Pugnacious, Pigmy.
A hand with the fingers clenched in the palm (as for hitting); SYN. clenched fist.

7. handwriting


Sinonimi: hand | script

1. Something written by hand; SYN. hand, script.
2. The activity of writing by hand.

8. manuscript


Sinonimi: holograph | ms

ETYM Late Lat. manuscriptum, lit., something written with the hand. Related to Manuscript.
1. Handwritten book or document; SYN. holograph.
2. The form of a literary work submitted for publication; SYN. ms.

9. penmanship


The use of the pen in writing; the art of writing; style or manner of writing; handwriting

10. script


Sinonimi: book | playscript

ETYM Old Eng. scrit, Latin scriptum something written, from scribere, scriptum to write: cf. Old Fren. escript, escrit, French écrit. Related to Scribe, Scrip a writing.
1. A particular orthography or writing system.
2. A written version of a play or other dramatic composition; used in preparing for a performance; SYN. book, playscript.

11. writing


Sinonimi: symbolic representation | written material | authorship | composition | penning

1. The activity of putting something in written form.
2. Letters or symbols written or imprinted on a surface; SYN. symbolic representation.
3. Reading matter; anything expressed in letters of the alphabet (especially when considered from the point of view of style and effect); SYN. written material.
4. The act of creating written works; SYN. authorship, composition, penning.
5. (Usually plural) The collected work of an author.
Any written form of communication using a set of symbols: see alphabet, cuneiform, hieroglyphic. The last two used ideographs (picture writing) and phonetic word symbols side by side, as does modern Chinese. Syllabic writing, as in Japanese, develops from the continued use of a symbol to represent the sound of a short word. Some 8,000-year-old inscriptions, thought to be pictographs, were found on animal bones and tortoise shells in Henan province, China, at a Neolithic site at Jiahu. They are thought to predate by 2,500 years the oldest known writing (Mesopotamian cuneiform of 3,500 BC).