Nauka o duši, tj. o onome što se pod pojmom "duša" razumeva, o činjenicama, zakonima i razvitku duševnog života uopšte; za razliku od filozofije, odnosno metafizike, ona je empirijska nauka, tj. njen predmet su pojave tzv. neposrednog, unutarnjeg iskustva, one koje svaka svesna jedinka nalazi u sebi kao nešto što joj je neposredno dato. (grč.)
Sinonimi: psychological science
ETYM Psycho- + -logy: cf. French psychologie. Related to Psychical.
Study of the mind; mental equipment or state of a person, etc. Systematic study of human and animal behavior. The first psychology laboratory was founded 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig, Germany. The subject includes diverse areas of study and application, among them the roles of instinct, heredity, environment, and culture; the processes of sensation, perception, learning, and memory; the bases of motivation and emotion; and the functioning of thought, intelligence, and language. Significant psychologists have included Gustav Fechner, founder of psychophysics; Wolfgang Köhler, one of the Gestalt or “whole” psychologists; Sigmund Freud and his associates Carl Jung and Alfred Adler; William James, Jean Piaget; Carl Rogers; Hans Eysenck; J B Watson; and B F Skinner.
Experimental psychology emphasizes the application of rigorous and objective scientific methods to the study of a wide range of mental processes and behavior, whereas social psychology concerns the study of individuals within their social environment; for example, within groups and organizations. This has led to the development of related fields such as occupational psychology, which studies human behavior at work, and educational psychology. Clinical psychology concerns the understanding and treatment of mental health disorders, such as anxiety, phobias, or depression; treatment may include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, counseling, psychoanalysis, or some combination of these.
Modern studies have been diverse; for example, the psychological causes of obesity; the nature of religious experience; and the underachievement of women seen as resulting from social pressures. Other related subjects are the nature of sleep and dreams, and the possible extensions of the senses, which leads to the more contentious ground of parapsychology.
The science of mental life; SYN. psychological science.