Ukrasni predmeti, prstenje, broševi, ogrlice.
ETYM French; of uncertain origin.
A small and delicately worked piece.
Jewel; piece of jewelry.
Sinonimi: broach | breastpin
(Irregular plural: brooches).
A decorative pin worn by women; SYN. broach, breastpin.
An ornament that is held by a pin or clasp and is worn at or near the neck.
1. Fineness; beauty.
2. Ornament; decoration; especially, excecially decoration; showy clothes; jewels.
ETYM Old Eng. flour, Old Fren. flour, flur, flor, French fleur, from Latin flos, floris. Related to Blossom, Effloresce, Floret, Florid, Florin, Flour, Flourish.
1. A plant cultivated for its blooms or blossoms.
2. Reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts; SYN. bloom, blossom.
3. The period of greatest prosperity or productivity; SYN. prime, peak, heyday, bloom, blossom, efflorescence, flush.
The reproductive unit of an angiosperm or flowering plant, typically consisting of four whorls of modified leaves: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. These are borne on a central axis or receptacle. The many variations in size, color, number, and arrangement of parts are closely related to the method of pollination. Flowers adapted for wind pollination typically have reduced or absent petals and sepals and long, feathery stigmas that hang outside the flower to trap airborne pollen. In contrast, the petals of insect-pollinated flowers are usually conspicuous and brightly colored.
The sepals and petals form the calyx and corolla respectively and together comprise the perianth with the function of protecting the reproductive organs and attracting pollinators.
The stamens lie within the corolla, each having a slender stalk, or filament, bearing the pollen-containing anther at the top. Collectively they are known as the androecium (male organs). The inner whorl of the flower comprises the carpels, each usually consisting of an ovary in which are borne the ovules, and a stigma borne at the top of a slender stalk, or style. Collectively the carpels are known as the gynoecium (female organs).
In size, flowers range from the tiny blooms of duckweeds scarcely visible to the naked eye to the gigantic flowers of the Malaysian Rafflesia, which can reach over 1 m/3 ft across. Flowers may either be borne singly or grouped together in inflorescences. The stalk of the whole inflorescence is termed a peduncle, and the stalk of an individual flower is termed a pedicel. A flower is termed hermaphrodite when it contains both male and female reproductive organs. When male and female organs are carried in separate flowers, they are termed monoecious; when male and female flowers are on separate plants, the term dioecious is used.
ETYM Old Eng. gemme precious stone, French gemme, from Latin gemma a precious stone, bud.
1. A crystalline rock that can be cut and polished for jewelry; SYN. gemstone, stone.
2. Something highly prized for its beauty or perfection; SYN. treasure.
Mineral valuable by virtue of its durability (hardness), rarity, and beauty, cut and polished for ornamental use, or engraved. Of 120 minerals known to have been used as gemstones, only about 25 are in common use in jewelry today; of these, the diamond, emerald, ruby, and sapphire are classified as precious, and all the others semiprecious, for example the topaz, amethyst, opal, and aquamarine.
Among the synthetic precious stones to have been successfully produced are rubies, sapphires, emeralds, and diamonds (first produced by General Electric in the US 1955). Pearls are not technically gems.
With the exception of the diamond, most stones are valued for their color. However, this is often due to the presence of pigmentary matter, and not a property of the mineral itself. The most common mineral pigments are probably compounds of iron, manganese and copper. Exposure to light makes some stones change or lose their color altogether; certain types of turquoise and topaz are particularly liable to do this.
ETYM Cf. French joaillerie.
Objects worn for ornament, such as rings, brooches, necklaces, pendants, earrings, and bracelets. Jewelry has been made from a wide variety of materials, including precious metals, gemstones, amber, teeth, bone, glass, and plastics.
History of Western jewelry.
3rd millennium BC.
Babylonian styles and metalworking techniques reached the Aegean. The Minoans in Crete used the filigree technique, and made large ornaments of embossed gold, silver, and electrum, featuring mythical subjects.
Hellenistic period (from c. 330 BC) Widespread use of colored stones and glass, and dipped enamel earrings (metal core dipped into molten glass and then shaped with regular glassworking techniques); also animal- or human-headed gold earrings.
Western Roman Empire.
The Romans were passionate collectors and wearers of gold jewelry and finely engraved gemstone cameos; they were the first to use rings as a sign of betrothal. Hooped earrings threaded with beads and other forms developed, also gold hairpins and bronze fibulae (brooches) based on Celtic forms.
Most jewelry was restricted to court and ecclesiastical circles. Byzantine influence led to much enameling. Crowns, buckles, clasps, and brooches used to fasten cloaks were decorated with enameled heraldic motifs. Jeweled embroidery was used for ecclesiastical vestments and ceremonial gloves.
Jewelry became more luxurious and was worn for its decorative value and as a display of wealth, rather than as a functional accessory to dress.
Many more techniques of gemcutting were developed to increase sparkle; many devotional rings were worn, and more necklaces and bracelets appeared as women's sleeves were cut wider and necklines became lower. Pendants adorned necklaces, hair, and headdresses—some opened up to reveal religious scenes in miniature. Rosaries were worn as necklaces. Auspicious objects such as jeweled Renaissance pomanders were believed to protect against plague.
Memorial jewelry incorporating woven or plaited hair first appeared. Fashionable women wore strings of pearls.
Matching sets of jewelry (parure) were worn by fashionable women, comprising earrings, brooch, necklace, and bracelet or stomacher. Daytime jewelry consisted of paste and non-precious gemstones; foil-backed enamels were made into buckles and miniature receptacles attached to belts; the best of these were made in France, but copies were made elsewhere in Europe.
Etiquette proscribed dress jewels from daytime wear; tortoiseshell, jet, coral, and ivory were worn instead. From the 1860s novel jewelry was increasingly worn— insects, locomotives, and household objects and tools. Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau jewelry was much simpler in design, emphasising organic forms. Around 1900 more conventional but superbly crafted jewelry appeared, designed by Tiffany and Cartier.
Late 19th century–20th century.
Synthetic gemstones developed along with the chemical industry and polymer science. As the 20th century progressed, costume jewelry was increasingly worn for effect, and from the 1930s onward everyday, inexpensive materials such as steel, Bakelite, and other kinds of plastic.
Silver jewelry in simple modern forms designed by Georg Jansen was influential. In the 1970s a new generation of jewelers, trained in art schools rather than through apprenticeship in the trade, placed emphasis on new design ideas rather than value of materials; much contemporary jewelry is affordable and fun.
1. An adornment (as a bracelet or ring or necklace) made of precious metals and set with gems (or imitation gems); SYN. jewellery.
2. Such adornments in general, spoken of collectively; SYN. gems, necklace, bracelet, ring, jewellery.
ETYM Old Eng. ornement, French ornement, from Latin ornamentum, from ornare to adorn.
That which embellishes or adorns; that which adds grace or beauty; embellishment; decoration; adornment.
ETYM Late Lat. paraphernalia bona, from Latin parapherna, pl., parapherna, Greek; para beside + pherne a bride's dowry, from ferein to bring.
1. Miscellaneous material; a variety of equipment needed for a particular activity.
2. Appendages; ornaments; finery; equipments.
1. A state of arrangement or appearance:; SYN. trimness.
2. Attitude of an aircraft in flight when allowed to take its own orientation.
3. Cutting down to the desired size or shape; SYN. trimming, clipping.
1. A decoration or adornment on a garment; or; SYN. trim, passementerie.
2. The act of adding decoration