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Libija [ ženski rod {geologija} ]

Država na severu Afrike.

Libya [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

A republic in North Africa on the Mediterranean; consists almost entirely of desert; a major exporter of petroleum.
Country in N Africa, bounded N by the Mediterranean Sea, E by Egypt, SE by Sudan, S by Chad and Niger, and W by Algeria and Tunisia.
government
The 19constitution created an Islamic socialist state, and the government is designed to allow the greatest possible popular involvement, through a large congress and smaller secretariats and committees. There is a General People's Congress (GPC) of 1,1members that elects a secretary general who was intended to be head of state. The GPC is serviced by a general secretariat, which is Libya's nearest equivalent to a legislature. The executive organ of the state is the General People's Committee, which replaces the structure of ministries that operated before the 19revolution. The Arab Socialist Union (ASU) is the only political party, and, despite Libya's elaborately democratic structure, ultimate power rests with the party and its leader.
history
The area now known as Libya was inhabited by N African nomads until it came successively under the domination of Phoenicia, Greece, Rome, the Vandals, Byzantium, and Islam, and from the 16th century was part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. In 19it was conquered by Italy, becoming known as Libya from 1934.
After being the scene of much fighting during World War II, in 19it was divided into three provinces: Fezzan, which was placed under French control; Cyrenaica; and Tripolitania, which was placed under British control. In 19it achieved independence as the United Kingdom of Libya, Mohammed Idris-as-Sanusi becoming King Idris.
revolution
The country enjoyed internal and external stability until a bloodless revolution 196led by young nationalist officers, deposed the king and proclaimed a Libyan Arab Republic. Power was vested in a Revolution Command Council (RCC), chaired by Col Moamer al-Khaddhafi, with the Arab Socialist Union (ASU) as the only political party. Khaddhafi soon began proposing schemes for Arab unity, none of which was permanently adopted. In 19he planned a federation of Libya, Syria, and Egypt and later that year a merger between Libya and Egypt. In 19he proposed a union with Syria and in 19with Chad.
Islamic socialism
Khaddhafi attempted to run the country on socialist Islamic lines, with people’s committees pledged to socialism and the teachings of the Koran. The 19constitution made him secretary-general of the general secretariat of the GPC, but in 19he resigned the post in order to devote more time to “preserving the revolution”.
conflict with the West
Khaddhafi's attempts to establish himself as a leader of the Arab world brought him into conflict with Western powers, particularly the US. The Reagan administration objected to Libya's presence in Chad and its attempts to unseat the French-US-sponsored government of President Habré. The US linked Khaddhafi to worldwide terrorist activities, despite his denials of complicity. The killing of a US soldier in a bomb attack in Berlin 19by an unidentified guerrilla group prompted a raid by US aircraft, some of them British-based, on Tripoli and Benghazi. Libyan terrorists were also blamed for the bombing of Pan American World Airways Flight 1over Lockerbie, Scotland, in 198killing 2people; and for the 19bombing of UTA (Union de Transports Aerians) Flight 7over Niger.
international sanctions
In Jan 19Khaddhafi did not retaliate when two fighter jets were shot down over the Mediterranean off Libya by the US Navy and he appeared to be moving toward improving external relations. He effected a reconciliation with Egypt Oct 198However, international sanctions were imposed against Libya April 19after the country repeatedly refused to extradite six suspects linked to the Lockerbie and UTA bombings. Foreign air links were severed and Libyan diplomatic staff in several countries were expelled. A US request for tougher sanctions was rejected by the United Nations (UN) April 199The UN currently reviewed its limited sanctions against Libya every 1days.



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