klica prevod, Srpsko - Engleski rečnik i prevodilac teksta

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klica [ ženski rod ]

Uzročnik zaraznih bolesti.
Početak, začetak.

bacteria [ N/A {N/A} ]
Generiši izgovor

Single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; SYN. bacterium, germ, microbe.
Universally present microscopic unicellular organisms.
Microscopic single-celled organisms lacking a nucleus. Bacteria are widespread, present in soil, air, and water, and as parasites on and in other living things. Some parasitic bacteria cause disease by producing toxins, but others are harmless and may even benefit their hosts. Bacteria usually reproduce by binary fission (dividing into two equal parts), and since this may occur approximately every minutes, a single bacterium is potentially capable of producing million copies of itself in a day. It is thought that 1–1of the world's bacteria have been identified.
Classification.
Bacteria are now classified biochemically, but their varying shapes provide a rough classification; for example, cocci are round or oval, bacilli are rodlike, spirilla are spiral, and vibrios are shaped like commas. Exceptionally, one bacterium has been found, Gemmata obscuriglobus, that does have a nucleus. Unlike viruses, bacteria do not necessarily need contact with a live cell to become active.
Bacteria can be classified into two broad classes (called Gram positive and negative) according to their reactions to certain stains, or dyes, used in microscopy. The staining technique, called the Gram test after Danish bacteriologist Hans Gram, allows doctors to identify many bacteria quickly.
Bacteria have a large loop of DNA, sometimes called a bacterial chromosome. In addition there are often small, circular pieces of DNA known as plasmids that carry spare genetic information. These plasmids can readily move from one bacterium to another, even though the bacteria may be of different species. In a sense, they are parasites within the bacterial cell, but they survive by coding characteristics that promote the survival of their hosts. For example, some plasmids confer antibiotic resistance on the bacteria they inhabit. The rapid and problematic spread of antibiotic resistance among bacteria is due to plasmids, but they are also useful to humans in genetic engineering. There are ten times more bacterial cells than human cells in the human body.
Functions.
Certain types of bacteria are vital in many food and industrial processes, while others play an essential role in the nitrogen cycle, which maintains soil fertility. For example, bacteria are used to break down waste products, such as sewage; make butter, cheese, and yogurt; cure tobacco; tan leather; and (by virtue of the ability of certain bacteria to attack metal) clean ships’ hulls and derust their tanks, and even extract minerals from mines. In 19a US veterinary toxicologist identified several species of bacteria in the stomach of a bowhead whale capable of digesting pollutants (naphthalene and anthracene, two carcinogenic fractions of oil difficult to break down, and PCBs, also carcinogenic). Bacteria cannot normally survive temperatures above 100şC/212şF, such as those produced in pasteurization; but those in deep-sea hot vents in the eastern Pacific are believed to withstand temperatures of 350şC/662şF. Thermus aquaticus, or taq, grows freely in the boiling waters of hot springs, and an en.
Zyme derived from it is used in genetic engineering to speed up the production of millions of copies of any DNA sequence, a reaction requiring very high temperatures.
Interaction.
Certain bacteria can influence the growth of others; for example, lactic acid bacteria will make conditions unfavorable for salmonella bacteria. Other strains produce nisin, which inhibits growth of listeria and botulism organisms. Plans in the food industry are underway to produce super strains of lactic acid bacteria to avoid food poisoning.
Developments.
In 19a British team of food scientists announced a new, rapid (five-minute) test for contamination of food by listeria or salmonella bacteria. Fluorescent dyes, added to a liquidized sample of food, reveal the presence of bacteria under laser light.
Bacterial spores million years old were extracted from a fossilized bee and successfully germinated by US scientists 199It is hoped that prehistoric bacteria can be tapped as a source of new chemicals for use in the drugs industry. Any bacteria resembling extant harmful pathogens will be destroyed, and all efforts are being to made to ensure no bacteria escape the laboratory.
Unicellular microorganisms that exist either as free-living organisms or as parasites and have a broad range of biochemical, and often pathogenic, properties. Bacteria can be grouped by form into five general categories: cocci (spherical), bacilli (rod-shaped), vibrio (curved rod-shaped), spirilla (spiral), and filamentous (thread-like).

bacterium [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM New Lat., from Greek bakthrion, baktron, a staff: cf. French bactérie.
A microscopic vegetable organism. Bacteria are destitute of chlorophyll, and are the smallest of microscopic organisms.

embryo [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM French embryon, Greek embryon, perh. from en in + bryein to be full of, swell with; perh. akin to Eng. brew.
A minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium.
An animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life; SYN. conceptus, fertilized egg.
Early developmental stage of an animal or a plant following fertilization of an ovum (egg cell), or activation of an ovum by parthenogenesis. In humans, the term embryo describes the fertilized egg during its first seven weeks of existence; from the eighth week onward it is referred to as a fetus.
In animals the embryo exists either within an egg (where it is nourished by food contained in the yolk), or in mammals, in the uterus of the mother. In mammals (except marsupials) the embryo is fed through the placenta. The plant embryo is found within the seed in higher plants. It sometimes consists of only a few cells, but usually includes a root, a shoot (or primary bud), and one or two cotyledons, which nourish the growing seedling.

germ [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM French germe, from Latin germen, germinis, sprout, but, germ. Related to Germen, Germane.
A microorganism, such as a bacterium.
A microorganism causing disease; a pathogen.
A seed or bud.
A source or beginning.
Colloquial term for a microorganism that causes disease, such as certain bacteria and viruses. Formerly, it was also used to mean something capable of developing into a complete organism (such as a fertilized egg, or the embryo of a seed).

microbe [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM New Lat. microbion, from Greek micro little + bio life.
Another name for microorganism.
A minute life form (especially a disease-causing bacterium); the term is not in technical use; SYN. bug, germ.

offset [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

The difference in temperature between the set point and the actual process temperature. Also, referred to as droop.
A plate makes an inked impression on a rubber-blanketed cylinder, which in turn transfers it to the paper; SYN. offset printing.

seed [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM Old Eng. seed, sed, as. saed, from sâwan to sow; akin to Dutch zaad seed, German saat, Icel. sâth, saethi, Goth. manasęths seed of men, world. Related to Sow to scatter seed, and cf. Colza.
The reproductive structure of higher plants (angiosperms and gymnosperms). It develops from a fertilized ovule and consists of an embryo and a food store, surrounded and protected by an outer seed coat, called the testa. The food store is contained either in a specialized nutritive tissue, the endosperm, or in the cotyledons of the embryo itself. In angiosperms the seed is enclosed within a fruit, whereas in gymnosperms it is usually naked and unprotected, once shed from the female cone.
Following germination the seed develops into a new plant.
Seeds may be dispersed from the parent plant in a number of different ways. Agents of dispersal include animals, as with burs and fleshy edible fruits, and wind, where the seed or fruit may be winged or plumed. Water can disperse seeds or fruits that float, and various mechanical devices may eject seeds from the fruit, as in the pods of some leguminous plants (see legume).
There may be a delay in the germination of some seeds to ensure that growth occurs under favorable conditions (see after-ripening, dormancy). Most seeds remain viable for at least years if dried to about water and kept at -20şC/-4şF, although 2of them will not survive this process.
(Homonym: cede).
A mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testa.
A small hard fruit.

sprout [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM Cf. AS. sprote a sprout, sprig; akin to Icel. sproti, German sprosse. Related to Sprout.
A newly grown bud (especially from a germinating seed).
Any new growth of a plant such as a new branch or a bud.



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