1. Izvajan čovekov lik ili lik životinje u glini ili kamenu; statua ili spomenika;
2. LJudsko telo, figura; oblik, prilika;
3. Prenosno: nema, nepomična pojava (mađ.)
Sinonimi: book of maps | map collection | telamon | atlas vertebra
1. A collection of maps in book form; SYN. book of maps, map collection.
Book of maps. The atlas was introduced in the 16th century by Mercator, who began work on it 1585; it was completed by his son 1594. Early atlases had a frontispiece showing Atlas supporting the globe.
2. A figure of a man used as a supporting column; SYN. telamon.
3. The 1st cervical vertebra; SYN. atlas vertebra.
ETYM French, figure, Latin figura; akin to fingere to form, shape, feign. Related to Feign.
1. A diagram or picture illustrating textual material; SYN. fig.
2. A representation of a bodily form (especially of a person).
3. A predetermined set of movements in dancing or skating.
4. A combination of points and lines and planes that form a visible palpable shape.
5. A number.
6. An amount of money expressed numerically.
7. The impression produced by a person.
8. A figurative expression; SYN. metaphor, expression, trope.
ETYM Latin, from Greek eikon.
Sacred or monumental image, statue, painting, etc.; picture on computer monitor to represent command.
In the Greek or Eastern Orthodox Church, a representation of Jesus, Mary, an angel, or a saint, in painting, low relief, or mosaic. The painted icons were traditionally done on wood. After the 17th century and mainly in Russia, a riza, or gold and silver covering that leaves only the face and hands visible (and may be adorned with jewels presented by the faithful in thanksgiving), was often added as protection.
Icons were regarded as holy objects, based on the doctrine that God became visible through Christ. Icon painting originated in the Byzantine Empire, but many examples were destroyed by the iconoclasts in the 8th and 9th centuries. The Byzantine style of painting predominated in the Mediterranean region and in Russia until the 12th century, when Russian, Greek, and other schools developed. Notable among them was the Russian Novgorod school, inspired by the work of the Byzantine refugee Theophanes the Greek. Andrei Rublev is the outstanding Russian icon painter.
A conventional religious picture painted in oil on a small wooden panel; venerated in the Eastern Church; SYN. ikon.
Sinonimi: mental image
ETYM French, from Latin imago, imaginis, from the root of imitari to imitate. Related to Imitate, Imagine.
An iconic mental representation; SYN. mental image.
ETYM Old Eng. imagerie, French imagerie.
1. Images in general, or in mass.
2. Figurative meaning: Unreal show; imitation; appearance.
3. The work of the imagination or fancy; false ideas; imaginary phantasms.
4. Rhetorical decoration in writing or speaking; vivid descriptions presenting or suggesting images of sensible objects; figures in discourse.
The use of metaphor, simile, and other figures of speech that create sensual comparisons; the use of symbols and descriptive language. The aim is to clarify or explain, to enable the reader to see in a different light or from a different angle.
ETYM Latin sculptura: cf. French sculpture.
1. A three-dimensional work of art.
2. Making figures or designs in three dimensions; SYN. carving.
Artistic shaping of materials such as wood, stone, clay, metal, and, more recently, plastic and other synthetics. The earliest prehistoric human artifacts include sculpted stone figurines, and all ancient civilizations have left behind examples of sculpture. Many indigenous cultures have maintained rich traditions of sculpture. Those of Africa (see African art), South America, and the Caribbean in particular have been influential in the development of contemporary Western sculpture.
Historically, most sculpture has been religious in intent. Chinese, Japanese, and Indian sculptures are usually Buddhist or Hindu images. African, Native American, and Oceanic sculptures reflect spirit cults and animist beliefs.
There are two main techniques traditionally employed in sculpture: carving, involving the cutting away of hard materials such as wood or stone to reveal an image; and modeling, involving the building up of an image from malleable materials, such as clay or wax, which may then be cast in bronze. In the 20th century various techniques for “constructing” sculptures have been developed, for example metal welding and assemblage.
Egyptian and Mesopotamian took the form of monumental reliefs in palace and temple decoration. Standing sculptures of the period were intended to be seen only from the front and sides. The first sculptures in the round (to be seen from all sides) were Greek. The development of vigorous poses (contrapposto) and emotional expressiveness elevated Greek sculpture to the pinnacle of artistic achievement (see Phidias, Praxiteles, and Parthenon), and much of subsequent Western sculpture has been imitative of Greek ideals. Lifelike portrait sculpture was introduced by the Romans.
Sculpture of the medieval period is epitomized by niche figures carved in stone for churches (for example, Chartres, France) and by delicate ivory carvings. The work of Niccola Pisano began a great tradition of Italian sculpture.
Greek supremacy was challenged by the reintroduction of free-standing sculptures, notably Michelangelo’s David 1501–04, and by superlative bronze casting, for example, Donatello’s equestrian monument of Gattamelata 1447–50 (Piazza del Santo, Padua). In the work of Lorenzo Ghiberti, Luca della Robbia, and Andrea del Verrocchio, figure sculpture attained a new dignity and power. The work of Benuenuto Cellini and Giovanni Bologna (1524–1608) exemplified the Mannerist style.
Pedro Berruguete, a pupil of Michelangelo, introduced the Renaissance to Spain. In France, Jean Goujon developed Mannerism. However, it was the High Renaissance style of Michelangelo that was later encouraged by Louis xiv, who commissioned numerous busts and figure groups, notably by François Girardon.
Baroque and Rococo sculpture.
Relief rather than free-standing sculptures came to the fore. The limpid virtuousity of sculptors such as Giovanni Bernini seemed to defy the nature of the materials they used. The style was represented in France by Etienne Falconet, and in Spain by Alonso Cano.
Sculpture of the 18th century concentrated on smooth perfection of form and surface, notably the work of Antonio Canova. The last great exponent of sculpture in the Classical tradition was Auguste Rodin. The work of Aristide Maillol and Antoine Bourdelle (1861–1929) emphasized formal qualities, rejecting both Realism and Impressionism.
Sculptors such as Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth, and Jacob Epstein used traditional materials and techniques to create forms inspired by “primitive” art and nature. The work of Amadeo Modigliani and Henri Gaudier-Brzeska also reflects such influences. Abstract sculpture was pioneered by Alexander Archipenko and Ossip Zadkine, both exponents of Cubism, and Constantin Brancusi and Alberto Giacometti, who developed three-dimensional abstract forms from natural materials. Followers of the non-representational school include Jacques Lipchitz, Jean Arp, Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner (pioneers of Russian Constructivism), Reg Butler, and Anthony Caro. Among more traditional sculptors whose work powerfully expresses the modern idiom are Marino Marini in Italy and Frank Dobson (1888–1963) in England.
Other sculptors have broken with the past entirely, rejecting both carving and modeling. Today the term sculpture applies to the mobiles of Alexander Calder, assemblages of various materials, environment sculpture and earthworks (pioneered by Carl André), and “installations”.
ETYM French, from Latin statua (akin to stativus standing still), from stare, statum, to stand. Related to Stand.
A sculpture representing a human or animal.