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Jordan [ muški rod {geologija} ]

Država i reka u Africi.

Jordan [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

A river in Palestine that empties into the Dead Sea; John the Baptist baptized Jesus in the Jordan; Also called: Jordan River.
An Arab kingdom in southwestern Asia on the Red Sea; Also called: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
City in Minnesota (USA); zip code 55352.
Town in Montana (USA); zip code 59337.
Village in New York (USA); zip code 13080.
a chamberpot.
Country in SW Asia, bounded N by Syria, NE by Iraq, E, SE and S by Saudi Arabia, S by the Gulf of Aqaba, and W by Israel.
Jordan is a constitutional monarchy, with the king effectively head of state and government. The 19constitution, amended 197197and 198provides for a two-chamber national assembly comprising a 30-member senate, appointed by the king for an eight-year term (one-half rotating every four years), and an 80-member house of representatives (house of deputies), elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term. The house is subject to dissolution within that period. The king governs with the help of a council of ministers whom he appoints and who are responsible to the assembly. The prime minister is the most senior member of the council. Political parties were banned 196partially restored 197banned again 197then finally legalized 19(although they remain subject to government approval).
The area forming the kingdom of Jordan was occupied by the independent Nabataeans from the 4th century BC and perhaps earlier, until AD 1when it became part of the Roman province of Arabia. It was included in the Crusaders' kingdom of Jerusalem 1099–118Palestine (partly in the West Bank of present-day Jordan) and Transjordan (the present-day East Bank) were part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire until its dissolution after World War I. Both were then placed under British administration by the League of Nations.
end of British mandates.
Transjordan acquired greater control of its own affairs than Palestine and separated from it 192achieving full independence when the British mandate expired 194The mandate for Palestine ran out 194whereupon Jewish leaders claimed it for a new state of Israel. Israel was attacked by Arab nations and fought until a cease-fire was agreed 194By then Transjordan forces had occupied part of Palestine to add to what they called the new state of Jordan. The following year they annexed the West Bank. In 19Hussein ibn Talai came to the Jordanian throne at the age of upon the mental incapacity of his father; he was officially made king 195In 19Jordan and Iraq formed an Arab Federation, which ended five months later when the Iraqi monarchy was overthrown. In 196following the Six-Day War (see Arab-Israeli Wars), Israelis captured the West Bank.
search for peace.
King Hussein has survived many upheavals in his own country and neighboring states, including attempts on his life, and has kept control of Jordan's affairs as well as playing a central role in Middle East affairs. Relations with his neighbors have fluctuated, but he has generally been a moderating influence. After Israel's invasion of Lebanon 198Hussein played a key role in attempts to bring peace to the area, establishing a relationship with Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) leader Yassir Arafat. By 19the Arab world was split into two camps, with the moderates represented by Jordan, Egypt, and Arafat's PLO, and the militant radicals by Syria, Libya, and the rebel wing of the PLO. In 19Hussein and Arafat put together a framework for a Middle East peace settlement. It would involve bringing together all interested parties, but Israel objected to the PLO being represented. Further progress was hampered by the PLO's alleged complicity in a number of guerrilla operations in that year. Hussein trie.
d to revive the search for peace by secretly meeting the Israeli prime minister in France and persuading Yassir Arafat to renounce publicly PLO violence in territories not occupied by Israel.
greater democratization.
In response to mounting unrest within Jordan 198Hussein promised greater democratization and in Nov elections to a new 80-member house of representatives were held. (From 198there had been in each chamber of parliament equal representation for the east and west (occupied) banks of the river Jordan, but in 19Hussein decided to to relinquish authority of the West Bank and the number of seats were reduced.) Soon after the elections the veteran politician Mudar Badran was made prime minister; he announced the lifting of martial law Dec 19(imposed since 1967). Martial law was ended and political parties legalized 199Assembly elections Nov 19were won by deputies loyal to the king (mainly independents), with several leading Islamic fundamentalists failing to win back their seats.
moves toward peace.
Following the Iraqi invasion and annexation of Kuwait Aug 199Hussein unsuccessfully attempted to act as a mediator. Meanwhile the United Nations trade embargo on Iraq and the exodus of thousands of refugees into Jordan strained the country’s resources. Jordan attended the historic Middle East peace conference in Spain Nov 199In May 19Hussein publicly distanced himself from Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein and in the same month appointed his senior negotiator in the Middle East peace talks, Abd al-Salam al-Mujali, prime minister. A “common agenda” for peace was agreed with Israel Sept 199In Jan 19an economic cooperation pact was signed with the PLO, and in July a treaty with Israel to end the 46-year-old “state of war”, as a precursor to serious boundary negotiations. Hussein appointed his cousin, Field Marshal Sharif Zeid bin Shaker, as prime minister Jan 1995.
River rising on Mount Hermon, Syria, at 5m/1,8ft above sea level and flowing S for about 3km/2mi via the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea, 3m/1,2ft below sea level. It occupies the northern part of the Great Rift Valley; its upper course forms the boundary of Israel with Syria and the kingdom of Jordan; its lower course runs through Jordan; the West Bank has been occupied by Israel since 1967.

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