Lečenje koje se vrši rukama, tj. operativnim putem.
ETYM Old Eng. surgenrie, surgerie; cf. Old Fren. cirurgie, French chirurgie, Latin chirurgia, Greek. Related to Surgeon.
1. The branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures.
2. (British) A room where a doctor or dentist can be consulted.
Branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease, abnormality or injury by operation. Traditionally it has been performed by means of cutting instruments, but today a number of technologies are used to treat or remove lesions, including ultrasonic waves and laser surgery.
Surgery is carried out under sterile conditions using an anesthetic. There are many specialized fields, including cardiac (heart), orthopedic (bones and joints), ophthalmic (eye), neuro (brain and nerves), thoracic (chest), and renal (kidney) surgery; other specialties include plastic and reconstructive surgery, and transplant surgery.
Historically, surgery for abscesses, amputation, dental problems, trepanning, and childbirth was practiced by the ancient civilizations of both the Old World and the New World.
During the Middle Ages, Arabic surgeons passed their techniques on to Europe, where, during the Renaissance, anatomy and physiology were pursued. By the 19th century, anesthetics and Joseph Lister's discovery of antiseptics became the basis for successful surgical practices. The 20th century's use of antibiotics and blood transfusions has made surgery safer and more effective.
Some early operations, such as thoracoplasty (causing partial collapse of a lung) for tuberculosis, have been replaced by other treatments. Also, the need for exploratory surgery has been reduced by the introduction of noninvasive imaging techniques, such as ultrasound and cat scans. The practice of endoscopy (examination of the interior of the body by direct viewing) has enabled the development of minimally invasive keyhole surgery.