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Vijetnam [ muški rod {geologija} ]

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Vietnam [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

Viet Nam, A republic in Indochina on the South China Sea; Also called: Viet Nam, Annam.
Country in SE Asia, on the South China Sea, bounded N by China and W by Cambodia and Laos.
Under the 19constitution, the supremacy of the Communist Party is declared and the highest state authority and sole legislative chamber is the national assembly, composed of a maximum of 4members directly elected every five years by universal suffrage. The assembly meets twice a year and elects from its ranks a permanent, 15-member council of state, whose chair acts as state president, to function in its absence. The executive government is the council of ministers, headed by the prime minister, which is responsible to the national assembly.
The dominating force in Vietnam is the Communist Party. It is controlled by a politburo, and is prescribed a “leading role” by the constitution.
Originally settled by SE Asian hunters and agriculturalists, Vietnam was founded 2BC in the Red River delta in the north, under Chinese overlordship. Under direct Chinese rule 1BC–AD 93it was thereafter at times nominally subject to China. It annexed land to the south and defeated the forces of Mongol emperor Kublai Khan 128European traders arrived in the 16th century. The country was united under one dynasty 1802.
France conquered Vietnam between 1858–8and it joined Cambodia, Laos, and Annam as the French colonial possessions of Indochina. French Indochina was occupied by Japan 1940–45.
north/south division Ho Chi Minh, who had built up the Vietminh (Independence) League, overthrew the Japanese-supported regime of Bao Dai, the former emperor of Annam, Sept 194French attempts to regain control and restore Bao Dai led to bitter fighting 1946–5and final defeat of the French at Dien Bien Phu. At the 19Geneva Conference the country was divided along the 17th parallel of latitude into communist North Vietnam, led by Ho Chi Minh, with its capital at Hanoi, and pro-Western South Vietnam, led by Ngo Dinh Diem, with its capital at Saigon.
Vietnam War
Within South Vietnam, the communist guerrilla National Liberation Front, or Vietcong, gained strength, being supplied with military aid by North Vietnam and China. The US gave strong backing to the incumbent government in South Vietnam and became, following the Aug 19Tonkin Gulf Incident, actively embroiled in the Vietnam War. The years 1964–witnessed an escalation in US military involvement to 500,0troops. From 196however, as a result of mounting casualties and domestic opposition, the US gradually began to withdraw its forces and sue for peace. A cease-fire agreement was negotiated Jan 19but was breached by the North Vietnamese, who moved south, surrounding and capturing Saigon (renamed Ho Chi Minh City) April 1975.
socialist republic
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed July 197and a program to integrate the south was launched. The new republic encountered considerable problems. The economy was in ruins, the two decades of civil war having claimed the lives of more than 2 million; it had maimed 4 million, left more than half the population homeless, and resulted in the destruction of 7of the country's industrial capacity.
foreign relations
In Dec 19Vietnam was at war again, toppling the pro-Chinese Khmer Rouge government in Kampuchea (now Cambodia) led by Pol Pot and installing a puppet administration led by Heng Samrin. A year later, in response to accusations of maltreatment of ethnic Chinese living in Vietnam, China mounted a brief, largely unsuccessful, punitive invasion of North Vietnam Feb–March 197These actions, coupled with campaigns against private businesses in the south, induced the flight of about 700,0Chinese and middle-class Vietnamese from the country 1978–7often by sea (the “boat people”). Economic and diplomatic relations with China were severed as Vietnam became closer to the USSR, being admitted into the East-bloc economic organization Comecon June 1978.
economic reform
Despite considerable economic aid from the Eastern bloc, Vietnam did not reach its planned growth targets 1976–8This forced policy adjustments 19and 198Further economic liberalization followed the death of Le Duan (1907–1986), effective leader since 196and the retirement of other prominent “old guard” leaders 198Under the pragmatic lead of Nguyen Van Linh (1914– ), a “renovation” program was launched. The private marketing of agricultural produce and formation of private businesses were now permitted, agricultural cooperatives were partially dismantled, foreign “joint venture” inward investment was encouraged, and more than 10,0political prisoners were released. Economic reform was most successful in the south. In general, however, the country faced a severe economic crisis from 198with inflation, famine conditions in rural areas, and rising urban unemployment inducing a further flight of “boat people” 1989–9predominantly to Hong Kong; some of these were forcibly repatriated beginning
Dec 1989.
Nguyen Van Linh resigned from his leadership of the Communist Party at the congress held June 19and Do Muoi, a supporter of Linh's policies, was elected the party's new general secretary. Vo Van Kiet, a leading advocate of capitalist-style reform, replaced him as prime minister Aug 199Le Duc Anh became president Sept 1992.
improved foreign relations
In 19Vietnam withdrew the last of its troops from Cambodia and the peace agreement Oct 19helped improve Vietnam's external image. Relations with China were normalized, after a 12-year breach, Nov 199when Do Muoi and Vo Van Kiet paid a state visit to Beijing and signed a series of commercial and diplomatic agreements. Commercial links were also established with members of the Association of South East Asian Nations. In 19relations were normalized with anticommunist South Korea. The US formally lifted its 30-year-old trade embargo 1994.

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