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1. Uganda


A landlocked republic in East Africa.
Landlocked country in E Africa, bounded N by Sudan, E by Kenya, S by Tanzania and Rwanda, and W by Zaire.
The 1969 was suspended following a military coup 1985 and a National Resistance Council (NRC) set up. In 1994 a constituent assembly was elected to produce a new multiparty constitution. Pending the adoption of the new constitution, the president governs in collaboration with the NRC, through a cabinet whom he appoints.
For early history, see Africa. Uganda was a British protectorate 1894–1962. It became an independent member of the Commonwealth 1962, with Dr Milton Obote, leader of the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), as prime minister. In 1963 it was proclaimed a federal republic; King Mutesa II became president, ruling through a cabinet. King Mutesa was deposed in a coup 1966, and Obote became executive president. One of his first acts was to end the federal status. After an attempt to assassinate him 1969, Obote banned all opposition and established what was effectively a one-party state.
Idi Amin’s regime
In 1971 Obote was overthrown in an army coup led by Maj Gen Idi Amin Dada, who suspended the constitution and all political activity and took legislative and executive powers into his own hands. Obote fled to Tanzania. Amin proceeded to wage what he called an “economic war” against foreign domination, resulting in the mass expulsion of people of Asian ancestry, many of whom settled in Britain. In 1976 Amin claimed that large tracts of Kenya historically belonged to Uganda and accused Kenya of cooperating with the Israeli government in a raid on Entebbe airport to free hostages held in a hijacked aircraft. Relations with Kenya became strained, and diplomatic links with Britain were severed. During the next two years the Amin regime carried out a widespread campaign against any likely opposition, resulting in thousands of deaths and imprisonments. The East African Community consisting of Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda, formed 1967, collapsed 1977.
military coups
In 1978, when Amin annexed the Kagera area of Tanzania, near the Uganda border, the Tanzanian president, Julius Nyerere, sent troops to support the Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA), which had been formed to fight Amin. Within five months Tanzanian troops had entered the Uganda capital, Kampala, forcing Amin to flee, first to Libya and then to Saudi Arabia. A provisional government, drawn from a cross-section of exiled groups, was set up, with Dr Yusuf Lule as president. Two months later Lule was replaced by Godfrey Binaisa who, in turn, was overthrown by the army. A military commission made arrangements for national elections, which were won by the UPC, and Milton Obote came back to power.
Obote's government was soon under pressure from a range of exiled groups operating outside the country and guerrilla forces inside, and he was only kept in office by the presence of Tanzanian troops. When they were withdrawn June 1982 a major offensive was launched against the Obote government by the National Resistance Movement (NRM) and the National Resistance Army (NRA), led by Dr Lule and Yoweri Museveni. By 1985 Obote was unable to control the army, which had been involved in indiscriminate killings, and he was ousted in July in a coup led by Brig Tito Okello. Obote fled to Kenya and then Zambia, where he was given political asylum.
national reconciliation
Okello had little more success in controlling the army and, after a brief period of power-sharing with the NRA, fled to Sudan Jan 1986. Museveni was sworn in as president and announced a policy of national reconciliation, promising a return to normal parliamentary government within three to five years. He formed a cabinet in which most of Uganda's political parties were represented, including the NRM (as is the political wing of the NRA), the Democratic Party, the Conservative Party, the UPC, and the Uganda Freedom Movement. He worked at consolidating his hold domestically, reviving the economy, and improving African relations, as in the nonaggression treaty signed with Sudan 1990. In 1993 the Baganda monarchy was reinstated, in the person of Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II. In March 1994 supporters of Museveni won a majority of seats in a constituent assembly elected to review a proposed new constitution.

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