Država na severu Afrike.
A republic in North Africa on the Mediterranean; consists almost entirely of desert; a major exporter of petroleum.
Country in N Africa, bounded N by the Mediterranean Sea, E by Egypt, SE by Sudan, S by Chad and Niger, and W by Algeria and Tunisia.
The 1977 constitution created an Islamic socialist state, and the government is designed to allow the greatest possible popular involvement, through a large congress and smaller secretariats and committees. There is a General People's Congress (GPC) of 1,112 members that elects a secretary general who was intended to be head of state. The GPC is serviced by a general secretariat, which is Libya's nearest equivalent to a legislature. The executive organ of the state is the General People's Committee, which replaces the structure of ministries that operated before the 1969 revolution. The Arab Socialist Union (ASU) is the only political party, and, despite Libya's elaborately democratic structure, ultimate power rests with the party and its leader.
The area now known as Libya was inhabited by N African nomads until it came successively under the domination of Phoenicia, Greece, Rome, the Vandals, Byzantium, and Islam, and from the 16th century was part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. In 1911 it was conquered by Italy, becoming known as Libya from 1934.
After being the scene of much fighting during World War II, in 1942 it was divided into three provinces: Fezzan, which was placed under French control; Cyrenaica; and Tripolitania, which was placed under British control. In 1951 it achieved independence as the United Kingdom of Libya, Mohammed Idris-as-Sanusi becoming King Idris.
The country enjoyed internal and external stability until a bloodless revolution 1969, led by young nationalist officers, deposed the king and proclaimed a Libyan Arab Republic. Power was vested in a Revolution Command Council (RCC), chaired by Col Moamer al-Khaddhafi, with the Arab Socialist Union (ASU) as the only political party. Khaddhafi soon began proposing schemes for Arab unity, none of which was permanently adopted. In 1972 he planned a federation of Libya, Syria, and Egypt and later that year a merger between Libya and Egypt. In 1980 he proposed a union with Syria and in 1981 with Chad.
Khaddhafi attempted to run the country on socialist Islamic lines, with people’s committees pledged to socialism and the teachings of the Koran. The 1977 constitution made him secretary-general of the general secretariat of the GPC, but in 1979 he resigned the post in order to devote more time to “preserving the revolution”.
conflict with the West
Khaddhafi's attempts to establish himself as a leader of the Arab world brought him into conflict with Western powers, particularly the US. The Reagan administration objected to Libya's presence in Chad and its attempts to unseat the French-US-sponsored government of President Habré. The US linked Khaddhafi to worldwide terrorist activities, despite his denials of complicity. The killing of a US soldier in a bomb attack in Berlin 1986 by an unidentified guerrilla group prompted a raid by US aircraft, some of them British-based, on Tripoli and Benghazi. Libyan terrorists were also blamed for the bombing of Pan American World Airways Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, in 1988, killing 270 people; and for the 1989 bombing of UTA (Union de Transports Aerians) Flight 772 over Niger.
In Jan 1989 Khaddhafi did not retaliate when two fighter jets were shot down over the Mediterranean off Libya by the US Navy and he appeared to be moving toward improving external relations. He effected a reconciliation with Egypt Oct 1989. However, international sanctions were imposed against Libya April 1992 after the country repeatedly refused to extradite six suspects linked to the Lockerbie and UTA bombings. Foreign air links were severed and Libyan diplomatic staff in several countries were expelled. A US request for tougher sanctions was rejected by the United Nations (UN) April 1995. The UN currently reviewed its limited sanctions against Libya every 120 days.