Država u Južnoj Americi.
Country in South America, bounded N by Colombia, E and S by Peru, and W by the Pacific Ocean.
Ecuador is not a fully federal state but has a devolved system of 21 provinces, including the Galápagos Islands, each administered by an appointed governor. The 1979 constitution provides for a president and a single-chamber national congress, the 77-member chamber of representatives, to which 65 representatives are elected on a provincial basis every two years and 12 nationally for a four-year term. The president is elected by universal suffrage for a four-year, nonrenewable term.
The tribes of N highland Ecuador formed the Kingdom of Quito about AD 1000, and it was conquered by the Inca in the 15th century. Ecuador was invaded and colonized by Spain from 1532. It joined Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama in the confederacy of Gran Colombia 1819. After joining other South American colonies in a revolt against Spain, Ecuador was liberated 1822 by Antonio José de Sucre and became fully independent 1830. With the support of the army, Ecuador was governed by Venezuelan General Juan José Flores 1830–45. However, his lack of understanding of the country led him to hand over power to the revolutionary leader Vicente Rocafuerta 1834–39. Flores was forced into exile 1845. Power passed to a Liberal oligarchy based in Guayaquil. The next 15 years saw the “nationalization” of both army and government. During the period 1861–75, Ecuadorian political life was dominated by General Gabriel García Moreno, who promoted education and carried out important public works.
After more than a decade of political instability, the military victory of Eloy Alfaro saw the beginnings of half a century of Liberal hegemony 1895–1944, marked by electoral fraud, military coups, and a lack of respect for basic civil rights. By 1948 some stability was evident, and eight years of Liberal government ensued. In 1956, Dr Camilo Ponce became the first Conservative president for 60 years. Four years later a Liberal, Dr José Maria Velasco (president 1933–35, 1944–47, and 1952–56), was reelected. He was deposed 1961 by the vice president, who was himself replaced by a military junta the following year. In 1968 Velasco returned from exile and took up the presidency again. Another coup 1972 put the military back in power until in 1978 a new, democratic constitution was adopted.
Economic deterioration caused strikes, demonstrations, and, in 1982, a state of emergency. In the 1984 elections there was no clear majority in the national congress, and the Conservative León Febres Cordero became president on a promise of “bread, roofs, and jobs”. In 1985 he won a majority in congress when five opposition members shifted their allegiance to him. In 1988 Rodrigo Borja Cevallos was elected president for a moderate left-wing coalition government. In July 1992 the United Republican Party leader Sixto Duran Ballen won the presidency, and the right-wing Social Christian Party became the largest party in congress, but without an overall majority. In 1994 President Duran suffered a midterm fall in popularity as opposition to his privatization and land-development policies grew. A long-standing border dispute with Peru was resolved Feb 1995.
A republic in western South America; the landscape is dominated by the Andes.