Angus, eigtl. A. Frank Johnstone-W., 1913, 1991, engl. Schriftst.; iron.-satir. Romane.
(Frank Johnstone) (1913-1991) English novelist, short-story writer, and biographer. His acidly humorous books include Anglo-Saxon Attitudes 1956 and The Old Men at the Zoo 1961. In his detailed portrayal of English society he extracted high comedy from its social and moral grotesqueries.
His nonfiction includes Emile Zola 1952, The World of Charles Dickens 1970, and The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling 1977.
Charles Thomson Rees, 1869, 1959, schott. Physiker; konstruierte die nach ihm ben. Nebelkammer; Nobelpreis 1927.
(1869-1959) Scottish physicist who in 1911 invented the Wilson cloud chamber, an apparatus for studying subatomic particles. He shared a Nobel Prize 1927.
Wilson was born near Edinburgh and studied at Manchester and Cambridge. He was professor at Cambridge 1925–34.
Wilson originally devised the cloud chamber to simulate clouds in his laboratory. From 1895 to 1899, he carried out many experiments and established that the nucleation of droplets can take place in the absence of dust particles. He also demonstrated that once the gas is supersaturated with water vapor, nucleation can occur and is greatly improved by exposure to X-rays. This showed that ions are the nucleation sites on which water droplets form in the absence of dust.
Wilson realized 1910 that the cloud chamber could possibly show the track of a charged particle moving through it, and applying a magnetic field to the chamber would cause the track to curve, giving a measure of the charge and mass of the particle. The adapted Wilson cloud chamber immediately became vital to the study of radioactivity.
During 1900–10, Wilson studied electrical conduction in dust-free air by means of a gold-leaf electroscope he devised.
Robert Woodrow, 10.1.1936, US-amerik. Physiker; erhielt für die Entdeckung der kosm. Hintergrundstrahlung den Nobelpreis 1978.
(1936-) US radioastronomer who, with Arno Penzias, in 1964–65 detected the cosmic background radiation, which is thought to represent a residue of the primordial Big Bang. He and Penzias shared the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for their work on microwave radiation.
Wilson was born in Houston and studied at Rice University and the California Institute of Technology. In 1963 he joined the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey; he was made head of the Radiophysics Department in 1976.
In 1964, Wilson and Penzias tested a radiotelescope and receiver system for the Bell Telephone Laboratories with the intention of tracking down all possible sources of static that were causing interference in satellite communications. They found a high level of isotropic background radiation at a wavelength of 7.3 cm/2.9 in, with a temperature of 3.1K (-276şC/-529şF). This radiation was a hundred times more powerful than any that could be accounted for on the basis of any known sources.
Unable to explain this signal, Wilson and Penzias contacted Princeton University, where it was immediately realized that their findings confirmed predictions of residual microwave radiation from the beginning of the universe.
Thomas Woodrow, 1865, 1924, US-amerik. Politiker (Demokrat); 1913–21 (28.) Präs. der USA; errang durch die Beteiligung der USA am 1. Weltkrieg für diese die erste Weltmachtstellung bei geringem militär. Einsatz; konnte bei den Pariser Friedensverhandlungen 1918/19 zwar die Gründung des Völkerbunds, nicht aber den Frieden aufgrund seiner Vierzehn Punkte durchsetzen; Friedensnobelpreis 1919.
(1856-1924)(1856-1924) 28th president of the US 1913–21, a Democrat. He kept the US out of World War I until 1917, and in Jan 1918 issued his “Fourteen Points” as a basis for a just peace settlement.
At the peace conference in Paris he secured the inclusion of the League of Nations in individual peace treaties, but these were not ratified by Congress, so the US did not join the League. Nobel Peace Prize 1919.
Wilson, born in Staunton, Virginia, was educated at Princeton University, of which he became president 1902–10. In 1910 he became governor of New Jersey. Elected US president 1912 against Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft, he initiated antitrust legislation and secured valuable economic and social reforms in his progressive “New Freedom” program. Wilson also instituted a federal income tax, the first since the Civil War. He strove to keep the US neutral during World War I, but the unrestricted German U-boat campaign, sensationalized by the sinking of the British liner Lusitania (with 128 Americans lost), forced him to declare war 1917. His refusal to compromise on the text of the League of Nations’ proposal contributed to its defeat in Congress. In 1919 Wilson suffered a stroke during a nationwide campaign to gain support for the League and retired from public life.