Fritz, Breslau 9.12.1868, +Basel 29.1.1934, dt. Chemiker, seit 1911 Direktor des Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instituts für physikal. Chemie und Elektrochemie in Berlin; 1933 emigriert. H. gelang die Darstellung von Ammoniak aus Stickstoff und Wasserstoff (Haber-Bosch-Verfahren), für die er 1918 den Nobelpreis für Chemie erhielt.
ETYM Old Eng. ote, ate, as. âta, akin to Fries. oat. Of uncertain origin.
1. Annual grass of Europe and North Africa; grains used as food and fodder (referred to primarily in the plural: 'oats').
2. Seed of the annual grass Avena sativa (spoken of primarily in the plural as 'oats').
Type of grass, genus Avena, a cereal food. The plant has long, narrow leaves and a stiff straw stem; the panicles of flowers, and later of grain, hang downward. The cultivated oat Avena sativa is produced for human and animal food.
It was an early domesticant (as a weed in the wheatfields) and survived cool temperatures where wheat had trouble growing. It is especially hardy in N Europe.
Fritz, 1868, 1934, dt. Chemiker; schuf die wissenschaftl. Grundlage für die Synthese von Ammoniak aus den Elementen Wasserstoff u. Stickstoff, die in techn. Maßstab von C. Bosch durchgeführt wurde (H.-Bosch-Verfahren); Nobelpreis 1918.
(1868-1934) German chemist whose conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia opened the way for the synthetic fertilizer industry. His study of the combustion of hydrocarbons led to the commercial “cracking” or fractional distillation of natural oil (petroleum) into its components (for example, diesel, gasoline, and paraffin). In electrochemistry, he was the first to demonstrate that oxidation and reduction take place at the electrodes; from this he developed a general electrochemical theory.
At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Haber was asked to devise a method of producing nitric acid for making high explosives. Later he became one of the principals in the German chemical-warfare effort, devising weapons and gas masks, which led to protests against his Nobel Prize 1918.
Haber was born in Bresslau, Silesia (now Wroclaw, Poland), and educated at Berlin, Heidelberg, and the Berlin Technische Hochschule. He was professor at Karlsruhe 1906–11, and then was made director of the newly established Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry in Berlin. When Adolf Hitler rose to power in 1933, Haber sought exile in Britain, where he worked at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge.
After World War I, Haber set himself the task of extracting gold from sea water to help to pay off the reparations demanded by the Allies. Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius had calculated that the sea contains 8,000 million metric tons of gold. The project got as far as the fitting-out of a ship and the commencement of the extraction process, but the yields were too low and the project was abandoned 1928.