Frz.-poln. Gelehrtenfamilie: Eve, Tochter von 3) u. 4), 6.12.1904, Musikerin u. Schriftst.
Eve 1904- daughter of Marie and Pierre American (French-born) author.
Frz.-poln. Gelehrtenfamilie: Marie, geb. Sklodowska, 1867, 1934, Chemikerin; entdeckte 1898 mit ihrem Mann Pierre C. die radioaktiven Elemente Polonium u. Radium; 1903 mit ihm Nobelpreis für Physik, 1911 allein Nobelpreis für Chemie.
(born Sklodowska) (1867-1934)
Polish scientist. In 1898 she and her husband Pierre Curie discovered two new, radioactive elements in pitchblende ores: polonium and radium. They isolated the pure elements 1902. Both scientists refused to take out a patent on their discovery and were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics 1903, with Henri Becquerel. Marie Curie wrote a Treatise on Radioactivity 1910, and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1911.
From 1896 the Curies worked together on radioactivity, building on the results of Wilhelm Röntgen (who had discovered X-rays) and Becquerel (who had discovered that similar rays are emitted by uranium salts). They took no precautions against radioactivity and Marie Curie died of radiation poisoning. Her notebooks, even today, are too contaminated to handle.
Maria Sklodowska was born in Warsaw, then under Russian domination. She studied in Paris from 1891 and married in 1895. In 1906 she succeeded her husband as professor of physics at the Sorbonne; she was the first woman to teach there.
Marie Curie discovered that thorium also emits radiation and found that the mineral pitchblende was even more radioactive than could be accounted for by any uranium and thorium content. In July 1898 the Curies announced the discovery of polonium, followed in Dec of that year with the discovery of radium. They eventually prepared 1 g/0.04 oz of pure radium chloride— from 8 metric tons of waste pitchblende from Austria. They also established that beta rays (now known to consist of electrons) are negatively charged particles.
In 1910 with André Debierne (1874–1949), who in 1899 had discovered actinium in pitchblende, Marie Curie isolated pure radium metal.
At the outbreak of World War I in 1914 Curie helped to equip ambulances with X-ray equipment, which she drove to the front lines. The International Red Cross made her head of its Radiological Service.
Frz.-poln. Gelehrtenfamilie: Pierre, 1859, 1906, Physiker; seit 1895 verh. mit Marie C.; untersuchte die magnet. Eigenschaften der Körper, die Piezoelektrizität von Kristallen u. radioaktive Elemente; 1903 Nobelpreis zus. mit 3).
(1859-1906) French scientist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics 1903 with his wife Marie Curie and Henri Becquerel. From 1896 the Curies had worked together on radioactivity, discovering two radioactive elements.
Pierre Curie was born in Paris and educated at the Sorbonne, becoming an assistant there 1878. He discovered the piezoelectric effect and, after being appointed head of the laboratory of the Ecole de Physique et Chimie, went on to study magnetism and formulate Curie’s law, which states that magnetic susceptibility is inversely proportional to absolute temperature. In 1895 he discovered the Curie point, the critical temperature at which a paramagnetic substance become ferromagnetic. In 1904 he became professor of physics at the Sorbonne.