1. (Homonym: roam).
2. Capital and largest city of Italy; on the Tiber; seat of the Roman Catholic Church; formerly the capital of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire; Also called: Roma, Eternal City, Italian capital, capital of Italy.
3. The leadership of the Roman Catholic Church.
4. Borough in Pennsylvania (USA); zip code 18837.
5. City in Georgia (USA).
6. City in Iowa (USA).
7. City in New York (USA); zip code 13440.
8. Unincorporated community in Illinois (USA).
9. Village in Ohio (USA).
(US) City in central New York state, on the Mohawk River, NW of Albany; Industries include copper and brass products, paint, and household appliances. Construction of the Erie Canal began here 1817.
(Italy) (Italian Roma) Capital of Italy and of Lazio region, on the river Tiber, 27 km/17 mi from the Tyrrhenian Sea; Rome has few industries but it is an important cultural, road, and rail center. A large section of the population finds employment in government offices. Remains of the ancient city include the Forum, Colosseum, and Pantheon.
E of the river are the seven hills on which Rome was originally built (Quirinal, Aventine, Caelian, Esquiline, Viminal, Palatine, and Capitol); to the W are the quarter of Trastevere, the residential quarters of the Prati, and the Vatican. Among ancient buildings and monuments are Castel Sant' Angelo (the mausoleum of the emperor Hadrian), the baths of Caracalla, the Colosseum, and the Arch of Constantine. The Appian Way, bordered by ancient tombs, retains long sections of the old paving. Among the Renaissance palaces are the Lateran, Quirinal, Colonna, Borghese (now the Villa Umberto I), Barberini, and Farnese. The many churches of different periods include the five greater or patriarchal basilicas: San Giovanni; St Peter's (San Pietro), the largest church in the world, within the Vatican; San Paolo, founded by the emperor Constantine on St Paul's grave; Santa Maria Maggiore, with the city's highest campanile; and San Lorenzo. The Vatican Palace, which adjoins St Peter's, is the residence of the Pope. Other.
ancient churches of interest are San Pietro in Vincoli (which houses the chains that fettered St Peter), Santa Maria in Cosmedin (built before the 6th century on the remains of a pagan temple), and the Pantheon (also built on pagan edifices).
Several important thoroughfares date from the era of Mussolini, notably the Via dei Fori Imperiali (formerly the Via dell'Impero) and the Via della Conciliazione, running from St Peter's to the Castel Sant'Angelo. The house where the English poet John Keats died is near the Piazza di Spagna, known for the Spanish Steps.
The city has numerous museums, including the vast papal collections (dating from the 15th century) of the Vatican, the Lateran museum, the Capitol, and the Thermae. The Sistine Chapel, with frescoes by Michelangelo, lies within the Vatican. Other public art collections are the Corsini and Galleria d'Arte; private collections include the Barberini, Doria, Albani, and Collona.
(For early history see Rome, ancient.) After the deposition of the last emperor, Romulus Augustulus, 476, the papacy became the real ruler of Rome and from the 8th century was recognized as such. The Sack of Rome (1527) led to an era of rebuilding, and most of the great palaces and churches were built in the 16th and 17th centuries. As a result of the French Revolution, Rome temporarily became a republic 1798–99, and was annexed to the French Empire 1808–14, until the Pope returned on Napoleon's fall. During the 1848–49 revolution, a republic was established under Guiseppe Mazzini's leadership, but, in spite of Guiseppe Garibaldi's defense, was overthrown by French troops.
In 1870 Rome became the capital of Italy, the Pope retiring into the Vatican until 1929 when the Vatican City was recognized as a sovereign state. The occupation of Rome by the Fascists 1922 marked the beginning of Mussolini's rule, but in 1943 Rome was occupied by Germany and then captured by the Allies 1944.
Glavni grad Italije, "Večni grad".