petroleum prevod, englesko - srpski rečnik

Prevod reči: petroleum

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petroleum [ imenica {hemija} ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM New Lat., from Latin petra a rock + oleum oil: cf. French pétrole. Related to Petrify, and Oil.
A dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons; SYN. crude oil, crude, coal oil, rock oil, fossil oil.
Or crude oil; Natural mineral oil, a thick greenish-brown flammable liquid found underground in permeable rocks. Petroleum consists of hydrocarbons mixed with oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and other elements in varying proportions. It is thought to be derived from ancient organic material that has been converted by, first, bacterial action, then heat and pressure (but its origin may be chemical also).
From crude petroleum, various products are made by distillation and other processes; for example, fuel oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, and lubricating oil. Petroleum products and chemicals are used in large quantities in the manufacture of detergents, artificial fibers, plastics, insecticides, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, and synthetic rubber.
Petroleum was formed from the remains of marine plant and animal life which existed many millions of years ago (hence it is known as a fossil fuel). Some of these remains were deposited along with rock-forming sediments under the sea where they were decomposed anaerobically (without oxygen) by bacteria which changed the fats of the sediments into fatty acids which were then changed into an asphaltic material called kerogen. This was then converted over millions of years into petroleum by the combined action of heat and pressure. At an early stage the organic material was squeezed out of its original sedimentary mud into adjacent sandstones. Small globules of oil collected together in the pores of the rock and eventually migrated upward through layers of porous rock by the action of the oil's own surface tension (capillary action), by the force of water movement within the rock, and by gas pressure. This migration ended either when the petroleum emerged through a fissure as a seepage of gas or oil on to the Ea.
Rth's surface, or when it was trapped in porous reservoir rocks, such as sandstone or limestone, in anticlines and other traps below impervious rock layers.
The modern oil industry originates in the discovery of oil in western Ontario in 18followed by Edwin Drake's discovery in Pennsylvania in 185Drake used a steam engine to drive a punching tool to m below the surface where he struck oil and started an oil boom. Rapid development followed in other parts of the us, Canada, Mexico, and then Venezuela where commercial production began in 187Oil was found in Romania in 186Iran in 190Iraq in 192Bahrain in 193and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in 1938.
The us led in production until the 1960s, when the Middle East outproduced other areas, their immense reserves leading to a worldwide dependence on cheap oil for transport and industry. In 19the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (opec) was established to avoid exploitation of member countries; after OPEC's price rises in 197the International Energy Agency (iea) was established 19to protect the interests of oil-consuming countries. New technologies were introduced to pump oil from offshore and from the Arctic (the Alaska pipeline) in an effort to avoid a monopoly by opec. Global consumption of petroleum in 19was billion barrels.
PollutionThe burning of petroleum fuel is one cause of air pollution. The transport of oil can lead to catastrophes —for example, the Torrey Canyon tanker lost off sw England 196which led to an agreement by the international oil companies 19to pay compensation for massive shore pollution. The 19oil spill in Alaska from the Exxon Valdez damaged the area’s fragile environment, despite cleanup efforts. Drilling for oil involves the risks of accidental spillage and drilling-rig accidents. The problems associated with oil have led to the various alternative energy technologies.
A new kind of bacterium was developed during the 197in the us, capable of “eating” oil as a means of countering oil spills.
History. Petroleum has been known and used for centuries. The Sumerians used it to reinforce mud bricks as early as 38bc. The Baku region in the Caucasus is one of the earliest known areas in the world yielding oil. The first recorded oil well was dug in South Iran about 5bc, and similar wells were used in the 13th century ad in Burma to provide oil to burn in lamps. Spanish galleons were caulked with bitumen collected from seepages on the shores of Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela during the Spanish conquest of the Americans.

nafta [ ženski rod {hemija} ]

Kamenovo ulje, sirovi petrolej (mrk, zejtinjava i lako zapaljiva tečnost, jaka mirisa i lakša od vode).
Uljasta goriva tečnost, nastala u dubini zemlje od smeše tekućih ugljovodonika; od nafte se proizvodi više od sto različitih derivata (benzin, maziva, ulja, vazelin, špiritus, benzol, toluol i dr.) (grč.)

petrolej [ muški rod {hemija} ]

Kameno ulje sastavljeno od smesa i otopina gasovitih, tečnih i čvrstih ugljovodonika; nalazi se u pukotinama i podzemnim slojevima gde natapa porozno kamenje, a služi kao odlično sredstvo za osvetljenje; nafta.

petroleum [ muški rod {hemija} ]

Drugo ime za naftu. (grč.-lat.)



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