ETYM French métallurgie, from Latin metallum metal, Greek metallon a mine + the root of ergon work. Related to Metal, and Work.
The science and technology of metals and alloys.
Study of alloying and treating metals. Art of extracting and refining metals. The science and technology of producing metals, which includes extraction, alloying, and hardening. Extractive, or process, metallurgy is concerned with the extraction of metals from their ores and refining and adapting them for use. Physical metallurgy is concerned with their properties and application. Metallography establishes the microscopic structures that contribute to hardness, ductility, and strength.
Metals can be extracted from their ores in three main ways: dry processes, such as smelting, volatilization, or amalgamation (treatment with mercury); wet processes, involving chemical reactions; and electrolytic processes, which work on the principle of electrolysis.
The foundations of metallurgical science were laid about 3500 BC in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, and India, where the art of smelting metals from ores was discovered, starting with the natural alloy bronze. Later, gold, silver, copper, lead, and tin were worked in various ways, although they had been coldhammered as native metals for thousands of years. The smelting of iron was discovered about 1500 BC. The Romans hardened and tempered iron into steel, using heat treatment. From then until about AD 1400, advances in metallurgy came into Europe by way of Arabian chemists. Cast iron began to be made in the 14th century in a crude blast furnace. The demands of the Industrial Revolution led to an enormous increase in wrought iron production. The invention by British civil engineer Henry Bessemer of the Bessemer process in 1856 made cheap steel available for the first time, leading to its present widespread use and the industrial development of many specialized steel alloys.
1. Nauka o procesima putem kojih se od ruda dobivaju metali i neki njihoi spojevi, topioničarstvo.
2. Industrija koja proizvodi crne metale (gvožđe i čelik) i obojene metale (bakar, olovo, cink i dr.) (grč.)