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Armenia [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

A republic in southwestern Asia; formerly an Asian Soviet; throughout 25years the Armenian people have been invaded and oppressed by their neighbors; Also called: Hayastan.
Country in W Asia, bounded E by Azerbaijan, N by Georgia, W by Turkey, and S by Iran.
There is a 260-member legislature, the supreme council, to which deputies are elected by a majority system, and a second ballot “run-off” race in contests in which there is no clear first-round majority. From the majority grouping within the supreme council, a prime minister (chair of the cabinet of ministers) is drawn. The state president is directly elected.
Armenia was in ancient times a kingdom occupying what is now the Van region of Turkey, part of nw Iran, and what is now Armenia. Under King Tigranes ii (95–bc) the kingdom reached the height of its power, controlling an empire that stretched from the Mediterranean to the Caucasus. Thereafter, it fell under the sway of the Byzantine Empire, then the Muslim Turks from the late 11th century, the Mongols in the 13th century, and the Ottomans from the 16th century. This domination by foreign powers bred an intense national consciousness and encouraged northward migration of the community.
Under Soviet control
With the advance of Russia into the Caucasus during the early 19th century, there was a struggle for independence which provoked an Ottoman backlash and growing international concern at Armenian maltreatment. In 19an estimated 1,750,0Armenians were massacred or deported by the Turks. Conquered by Russia 191Armenia was briefly independent 19until occupied by the Red Army 192Along with Azerbaijan and Georgia, it formed part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republic, but became a constituent republic of the ussr 1936.
Growth of nationalism
As a result of glasnost, Armenian national identity was reawakened and in 19demands for reunion with Nagorno-Karabakh led to a civil war 1989–9resulting in the intervention of Soviet troops. The Armenian National Movement, which was formed Nov 19by Levon Ter-Petrossian and Vazguen Manukyan, and the militant Karabakh Committee were at the fore of this growing nationalist campaign. The campaign included attempts to secure full control over the Azeri enclave of Nakhichevan, leading to the flight of almost 200,0Azeris from the republic. In the 19elections to the republic's supreme soviet (parliament) nationalists polled strongly and Ter-Petrossian and Manukyan were chosen as president and prime minister respectively.
Struggle for independence
On Aug 19a declaration of independence was made but ignored by Moscow. The republic boycotted the March 19ussr referendum on the preservation of the Soviet Union and in April 19property belonging to the Communist Party of Armenia (cpa) was nationalized. Four months later the cpa dissolved itself. In a referendum held Sept 199shortly after the failed anti-Gorbachev coup in Moscow, 9voted for secession from the ussr. Independence was formally proclaimed by President Ter-Petrossian, but this failed to secure Western recognition.
Nagorno-Karabakh dispute
A cease-fire agreement signed by Armenia and Azerbaijan on Sept 19collapsed Nov 19when the Azeri parliament, dominated by communists-turned-nationalists, voted to annul Nagorno-Karabakh’s autonomous status. Soviet troops were gradually withdrawn from the enclave, leaving it vulnerable to Azeri attacks. In response, after a referendum and elections Dec 199Nagorno-Karabakh’s parliament declared its “independence”, precipitating an intensification of the conflict.
Armenian independence achieved
On Oct 199Ter-Petrossian was overwhelmingly reelected president, capturing 8of the vote, in the republic's first direct election. In Dec 19Armenia joined the new Commonwealth of Independent States, which was formed to supersede the Soviet Union. Also in Dec Armenia was accorded diplomatic recognition by the us and in Jan 19was admitted into the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe; in March 19it became a member of the United Nations.
Nagorno-Karabkh conflict worsens
During early 19Armenia suffered a trade and energy embargo imposed by Azerbaijan in the escalating conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. Armenian forces captured the Azeri strategic strongholds of Shusha and Lachin in May, but by Aug had lost much of their newly gained territory in a surprise counteroffensive by Azeri troops. They recovered their losses during 19and by July reputedly controlled one-fifth of Azeri territory, including much of Nagorno-Karabkh.

Armenija [ ženski rod {geologija} ]

Država u Evropi, ranije sovjetska republika.

Jermenija [ ženski rod {geologija} ]

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