ETYM Cf. French alcool, formerly written alcohol, Spanish alcohol alcohol, antimony, galena, Old Span. alcofol; all from Arabic al-kohl a powder of antimony or galena.
Any member of a group of organic chemical compounds characterized by the presence of one or more aliphatic OH (hydroxyl) groups in the molecule, and which form esters with acids. The main uses of alcohols are as solvents for gums, resins, lacquers, and varnishes; in the making of dyes; for essential oils in perfumery; and for medical substances in pharmacy. The alcohol produced naturally in the fermentation process and consumed as part of alcoholic beverages is called ethanol.
Alcohols may be liquids or solids, according to the size and complexity of the molecule. The five simplest alcohols form a series in which the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms increases progressively, each one having an extra CH2 (methylene) group in the molecule: methanol or wood spirit (methyl alcohol, CH3OH); ethanol (ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH); propanol (propyl alcohol, C3H7OH); butanol (butyl alcohol, C4H9OH); and pentanol (amyl alcohol, C5H11OH). The lower alcohols are liquids that mix with water; the higher alcohols, such as pentanol, are oily liquids immiscible with water; and the highest are waxy solids —for example, hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol, C16H33OH) and melissyl alcohol (C30H61OH), which occur in sperm-whale oil and beeswax respectively. Alcohols containing the CH2OH group are primary; those containing CHOH are secondary; while those containing COH are tertiary.
1. A liquor or brew containing alcohol (C2H5OH) as the active agent; SYN. alcoholic beverage, drink, intoxicant, inebriant.
2. Any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation.
1. Najbolji, savršeno prečišćen prah, npr. od kore kina drveta, železa i dr.;
2. Potpuno prečišćen špiritus izlučen iz vina, piva, rakije i dr.; opojno piće.