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Yemen

imenicageografija

A republic on the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula on the Indian Ocean; formerly Southern Yemen; Also called: People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.
Country in SW Asia, bounded N by Saudi Arabia, E by Oman, S by the Gulf of Aden, and W by the Red Sea.
government
The 1991 constitution provides for a 301-member house of representatives, elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term. The house elects a five-member presidential council for a five-year term, and the council then elects, from among its own members, a chairman and vice chairman as the country's president and vice president.
history
North Yemen was a kingdom in the 2nd millennium BC, followed by successive periods of rule by Egypt, Rome, and Ethiopia. North Yemen adopted Islam 628, formed part of the Ottoman Empire 1538–1630, and was occupied by Turkey in the 19th century.
For the early history of South Yemen, see Arabia.
North Yemen declared a republic
The last king of North Yemen, Imam Mohammed, was killed in a military coup 1962. The declaration of the new Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) provoked a civil war between royalist forces, assisted by Saudi Arabia, and republicans, helped by Egypt. By 1967 the republicans, under Marshal Abdullah al-Sallal, had won. Later that year Sallal was deposed while on a foreign visit, and a Republican Council took over.
South Yemen republic founded
The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) was founded 1967 by the union of Aden and the Federation of South Arabia, both of which had been under British rule or protection. Before Britain withdrew, two rival factions fought for power, the Marxist National Liberation Front (NLF) and the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen. The NLF eventually won and assumed power as the National Front (NF). On the third anniversary of independence, 1 Nov 1970, the country was renamed the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and a provisional Supreme People's Council was set up 1971 as the nation's parliament.
The accession of the left-wing NF government caused hundreds of thousands of people to flee to North Yemen, where a more moderate regime was in power. This resulted in clashes between the South Yemen government and mercenaries operating from North Yemen, and war broke out 1971. The Arab League arranged a cease-fire 1972, and the two countries signed an agreement to merge, but the agreement was not honored.
In North Yemen the pro-Saudi Col Ibrahim al-Hamadi seized power 1974, and by 1975 there were rumors of an attempt to restore the monarchy. In 1977 Hamadi was assassinated and Col Ahmed ibn Hussein al-Ghashmi, another member of the Military Command Council which Hamadi had set up 1974, took over. In 1978 a gradual move toward a more constitutional form of government was started, with the appointment of a constituent people's assembly, the dissolution of the Military Command Council, and the installation of Ghashmi as president.
In 1978 Ghashmi was killed when a bomb exploded in a suitcase carried by an envoy from South Yemen, and Col Ali Abdullah Saleh took over as president. In the aftermath of Ghashmi’s death, the South Yemen president Rubayi Ali was deposed and executed. Two days later the three political parties of South Yemen agreed to merge to form a “Marxist–Leninist vanguard party”, the Yemen Socialist Party (YSP), and Abdul Fattah Ismail became its secretary-general. In Dec 1978 Ismail was appointed head of state but four months later resigned and went into exile in the USSR. He was succeeded by Ali Nasser Mohammed.
In 1979 South Yemen's neighbors became concerned when a 20-year Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation was signed, allowing the USSR to station troops in the country, and three years later an aid agreement between the two countries was concluded. A subsequent aid agreement with Kuwait helped to reduce anxieties.
two Yemens at war
War broke out again between the two Yemens after the assassination of President Ghashmi of North Yemen. The Arab League again intervened to arrange a cease-fire 1979, and for the second time the two countries agreed to unite. This time definite progress was made so that by 1983 a joint Yemen council was meeting at six-monthly intervals, and in March 1984 a joint committee on foreign policy sat for the first time in Aden.
In North Yemen President Saleh was reelected for a further five years 1983, and again 1988, while in South Yemen Ali Nasser Mohammed was reelected secretary-general of the YSP and its political bureau for another five years 1985. He soon began taking steps to remove his opponents, his personal guard killing three bureau members. This led to a short civil war and the dismissal of Ali Nasser from all his posts in the party and the government. A new administration was formed, headed by Haydar Abu Bakr al-Attas, which immediately committed itself to eventual union with North Yemen.
unification
A draft constitution of the unified state of Yemen was published Dec 1989 and in Jan 1990 the border between the two countries was opened to allow free movement for all citizens. The unification was proclaimed 22 May, with Ali Abdullah Saleh as leader of the new Republic of Yemen and Sanaa as its capital. The new constitution was approved May 1991.
renewed civil war
In the country's first free elections April 1993, the northern based General People's Congress (GPC), led by President Ali Abdullah Saleh, won most seats in the assembly but failed to secure an overall majority over the southern-based, ex-Marxist YSP, led by Salim al-Baidh. In Oct parliament elected a five-member presidential council, which included Ali Abdullah Saleh as president and Salim al-Baidh as vice president. Following months of tense relations between the president and vice president, civil war re-erupted April 1994 and in May al-Baidh announced South Yemen's secession from the union. In July 1994 the northern forces of President Saleh inflicted a crushing defeat on those of al-Baidh, effectively ending the nine-week civil war. In Oct 1994 a new coalition of the centrist GPC and the right-of-center Islamic al-Islah party was formed.

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